When an instrument is translated for use in cross-cultural research, it needs to account for cultural factors without distorting the psychometric properties of the instrument.
To validate the psychometric properties of the condom self-efficacy scale (CSE) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults after translating the scale to Korean (CSE-K) to determine its suitability for cross-cultural research among Korean college students.
A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with an exploratory survey methodology through self-report questionnaires. A convenience sample of 351 students, aged 18 to 25 years, were recruited at a university in Seoul, Korea. The participants completed the CSE-K and the intention of condom use scales after they were translated from English to Korean using a combined translation technique. A demographic and sex history questionnaire, which included an item to assess actual condom usage, was also administered. Mean, variance, reliability, criterion validity, and factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis were assessed in the CSE-K.
Norms for the CSE-K were similar, but not identical, to norms for the English version. The means of all three subscales were lower for the CSE-K than for the original CSE; however, the obtained variance in CSE-K was roughly similar with the original CSE. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale was higher for the CSE-K (.91) than that for either the CSE (.85) or CSE in Thai (.85). Criterion validity and construct validity of the CSE-K were confirmed.
The CSE-K was a reliable and valid scale in measuring condom self-efficacy among Korean college students. The findings suggest that the CSE was an appropriate instrument to conduct cross-cultural research on sexual behavior in adolescents and young adults.
EunSeok Cha, PhD, MPH, RN, is Instructor, Department of Nursing, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.
Kevin H. Kim, PhD, is Assistant Professor, The School of Education; and Lora E. Burke, PhD, MPH, FAAN, is Professor, School of Nursing and Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Accepted for publication March 31, 2008.
This study was supported partially by the Rose E. Constantino Scholarship, University of Pittsburg, and Chung-Ang University Excellent Researcher Grant in 2008.
The authors are grateful to Dr. Kathleen M. Hanna, associate professor, Indiana University, for her review of a preliminary paper.
Corresponding author: EunSeok Cha, PhD, MPH, RN, 506 Department of Nursing, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-dong Dongjakgu, Seoul, South Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).