Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Construct Validity of the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale

Choi, Myunghan; Phillips, Linda R.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Insel, Katheleen; Min, Sung-Kil

doi: 10.1097/

Background: Domestic violence against married women has persisted throughout Korean history. However, very little empirical research has been conducted in Korea about domestic violence, its causes, or women's responses.

Objective: To develop and test psychometrically the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale (KWAIS) to measure women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands in Korea.

Methods: The first phase of the investigation involved qualitative research to explore the themes of women's responses to domestic violence and the development of the instrument. The second phase was a preliminary study conducted to examine women's responses to domestic violence. In the third phase, construct validity of the scale was established, using a sample of 184 married women living in Korea.

Results: The KWAIS adequately supported the underlying theory of women's responses to domestic violence, demonstrating strong content validity, high internal consistency (Cronbach's α of .98), and criterion-related validity evidenced by significant correlations that supported hypotheses among abuse intolerance and abuse (r = .69), traditional family ideology (r = −.78), marital satisfaction (r = −.85), attitude toward power ascription (r = .63), and collectivism (r = −.88). Factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure, explaining 78.4% of the common variance. Factor loadings ranged from .65 to .93.

Discussion: The findings for the psychometric properties of the KWAIS established its potential as a research instrument in measuring Korean women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands. Future studies need to focus on determining the predictive validity of the KWAIS and evaluating cross-cultural differences in women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands.

Myunghan Choi, PhD, MPH, RN, is Research Specialist, Postmaster's Adult Nurse Practitioner Program, College of Nursing and Healthcare Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix.

Linda R. Phillips, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Professor, School of Nursing, University of California, Los Angeles.

Aurelio José Figueredo, PhD, is Professor, Department of Psychology; and Katheleen Insel, PhD, RN, is Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Sung-Kil Min, MD, is Professor, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Accepted for publication August 27, 2007.

Thank you to Dr. Woo, Dr. Park, and Dr. Sabu for providing their profound knowledge and insightful and significant impact on the quality of the study and to the women who were victims of domestic abuse for their participation.

Corresponding author: Myunghan Choi, PhD, MPH, RN, College of Nursing and Healthcare Innovation Research, Arizona State University, 500 N. 3rd St., Phoenix, AZ 85004 (e-mail:

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.