Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, RN, is Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Senior Fellow, Center for Bioethics, Department of Medical Ethics; Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Marion Danis, MD, is Chief of Bioethics Consultations and Head Section on Ethics and Health Policy, Department of Clinical Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Sarah J. Ratcliffe, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Oncology, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Deloris Koziol, PhD, is a Clinical Epidemiologist, Clinical Epidemiology Service, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Karen L. Soeken, PhD, is Professor, School of Nursing, University of Maryland, Baltimore.
Christine Grady, PhD, RN, is Head, Section on Human Subjects Research, Department of Clinical Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Accepted for publication July 25, 2006.
Copyright: S.T. Fry & NEN (1997). Used with permission of Sara T. Fry. Original copyright: S. Damrosch & S. Fry, through a contractual agreement with the Maryland Nurses Association, 8/1/93. Used with permission of the Maryland Nurses Association.
The study was funded by the Department of Clinical Bioethics at the National Institutes of Health.
The authors thank Ryan Hubbard and Thomas Guterbock, University of Virginia, for assistance with the survey and Ezekiel Emanuel at NIH, and faculty at the University of Pennsylvania (Julie Sochalski, Eileen Sullivan-Marx, Sean Clarke, Afaf Meleis, Linda Aiken, and Pamela Sankar), Frances Lewis and Qiuping Zhou for their thoughtful review of earlier drafts.
The opinions are the personal views of the authors and do not reflect the official policies or positions of the Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, or the Public Health Service.
Corresponding author: Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, RN, School of Nursing and Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania, Room 357 NEB, 420 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4210 (e-mail: [email protected]).