A repeated measures randomized within-group design was used to determine the effectiveness of controlled short-duration hyperventilation (HV) in blunting the increase of intracranial pressure (ICP) during endotracheal suctioning (ETS). A multimodal continuous real-time computerized data acquisition procedure was used to compare the effects of two HV ETS protocols on ICP, arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation in severe head-injured adult patients. The results indicated that short-duration HV for 1 minute, which decreases the PaCO2, reduced ETS-induced elevations in ICP while maintaining CPP. However, it is not clear whether short-duration HV is neuroprotective, particularly in ischemic regions of the brain. Therefore, before a change in practice is implemented on the use of short-duration HV as a prophylactic treatment against ETS-induced elevations in ICP, additional questions on cerebral oxygen delivery and uptake need to be answered.