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Results from the 2019 Emergency/Trauma/Transport Nursing Workforce Survey

Nursing Management (Springhouse): December 2019 - Volume 50 - Issue 12 - p 1–24
doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000617000.11332.ab
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Back to Top | Article Outline

Emergency, Trauma, and Transport Nursing Workforce Study

Purpose of the Research, What Will be Required of Participants, and Length of Commitment

The Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing (BCEN), the Air & Surface Transport Nurses Association (ASTNA), the Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), and the Society of Trauma Nurses (STN) have partnered with MedEvac Foundation International and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) to conduct a survey to better understand the workforce along the emergency nursing spectrum, including emergency, trauma, and transport nurses.

The survey will ask about your experience in emergency, trauma, and transport nursing, including the challenges you face, the resources that are most valuable to you, your overall job satisfaction and feelings of burnout, typical career paths for someone in your role, and your future career plans. Completing this survey will take about 20-30 minutes of your time.

Potential Risks

Participating in this study presents no risks. Participation is completely voluntary, and you may choose not to answer any or all questions or stop the survey at any time without consequence. If you choose not to answer a question for any reason, you may simply skip it and continue with the rest of the survey.

Potential Benefits

The results of this study will provide a profile of the workforce along the emergency nursing spectrum and inform future research and other actions to address the issues facing this particular workforce.

All individuals who participate may choose to be entered in a drawing for one of 20 gift cards, each worth $200. Click here for full details regarding the drawing.

How Data will be Secured and Respondent Confidentiality Maintained

Your responses to this survey will be anonymous, and all responses will be stored on a secure server. If you choose to enter the drawing for a gift card, your email address will be stored in a separate database from the rest of your survey results. Furthermore, HumRRO will provide only aggregated data when reporting the results; no individual data will be provided.

We thank you in advance for your time to complete the survey. Questions about the purpose of the study as well as questions about technical support may be directed to MedEvac@humrro.org.

By clicking “Start Survey” below you are indicating that you agree to participate in this research.

Once you begin the survey, we encourage you to save the link found at the bottom of the survey. This will allow you to resume completion of the survey in case you need to finish the survey at a later time.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Section 1: Education/Licensure

1. What is your highest level of nursing education?

Vocational/Practical certificate–nursing

Diploma–nursing

Associate degree–nursing

Bachelor's degree–nursing

Master's degree–nursing

Doctoral degree–nursing

N/A

Other (please specify)

2. In what year did you obtain each of the following nursing licenses? If you have not obtained the nursing license, please select NA.

LPN:

RN:

APRN:

2a. (If have obtained an APRN) What is your specific certification as an Advanced Practice RN?

Nurse Practitioner

Clinical Nurse Specialist

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

Certified Nurse Midwife

Not licensed/certified as any of the above

Other (please specify)

3a. What is your highest level of nonnursing education?

High school diploma/GED

Some college

Associate degree

Bachelor's degree

Master's degree

Doctoral degree

Other (please specify)

3b. Please indicate the specific area of study (for example, general studies, biology, engineering).

4. What is the current status of the highest nursing license you have obtained?

Active

Inactive

Unknown

I have not obtained a nursing license

5. How many nursing jobs do you currently hold?

0

1

2

3 or more

6. How many total hours do you work during a typical week across all your nursing positions?

Back to Top | Article Outline

Section 2: Current and Past Work

7. What is your employment status? (select all that apply)

Actively employed in nursing – Full–time

Actively employed in nursing – Part–time

Actively employed in nursing – Active duty military

Actively employed in nursing – Reserve military (e.g., Army National Guard, Navy Reserve, etc.)

Actively employed in nursing – Per diem

Actively employed in nursing – Seasonal

Actively employed in a field other than nursing – Full–time

Actively employed in a field other than nursing – Part–time

Actively employed in a field other than nursing – Per diem

Actively employed in a field other than nursing – Seasonal

Volunteering as a nurse

In transition/unemployed – Seeking work as a nurse

In transition/unemployed – Not currently seeking work as a nurse

Active student – Full–time

Active student – Part–time

Retired

Other (please specify)

7a. (If “In Transition”) How many years ago did you leave your most recent emergency/trauma/ transport nursing position?

7b. (If “Active Duty Military” or “Reserve Military”) In what branch of the military are you currently serving?

7c. (If “Active Duty Military” or “Reserve Military”) Where are you currently stationed?

7d. (If not Actively employed or Volunteering as a nurse) Please indicate the reason(s) that you are not currently seeking work as a nurse. (select all that apply)

Taking care of home and family

Disabled

Inadequate salary

School

Difficulty in finding a nursing position

Seeking work in other fields instead

Other (please specify)

8a. In what specialty do you currently and primarily work? If you are not currently employed, please indicate the specialty in which you primarily worked most recently.

Emergency

Trauma

Critical Care

Transport

Other (please specify)

8b. In what other specialties do you currently work? (select all that apply)

Emergency

Trauma

Critical Care

Transport

Other (please specify)

9. How long have you worked in your current and primary specialty? (in years) Please include time in your current organization and other organizations where you were working in the same specialty. If less than 1 year, please input a decimal response, such as .25 for 3 months, .5 for 6 months, .75 for 9 months.

The next series of questions are about your primary nursing position. If you work in more than one setting, please focus on the one where you spend the most time. If you are unemployed, please answer regarding your most recent emergency/trauma/transport nursing role. If any questions do not apply to your current situation you may simply leave those questions blank.

10. How many years have you worked in your current primary nursing position for your current organization? If less than 1 year, please input a decimal response, such as .25 for 3 months, .5 for 6 months, .75 for 9 months.

11. Please identify the position title that most closely corresponds to your primary nursing position.

Direct Patient Care Provider or Clinical Nurse

Charge Nurse

Transport Nurse

Consultant/Nurse Researcher

Nurse Executive

Nurse Manager

Nurse Faculty/Educator

Advanced Practice Nurse

Trauma Program Manager/Coordinator

Trauma Nurse

Other–Health Related

Other–Not Health Related

Table

Table

11a. If you selected “Other–Health Related” or “Other–Not Health Related,” please indicate your position title in the box below.

12. Below is a list of credentials, board certifications, and certificates. Please indicate a) which of the following you have and b) whether it is required or recommended for your current primary nursing position. Note that if you must have one of two potential credentials (for example, either LPN or RN), you may simply indicate that both are required.

12a. If you indicated other credentials, board certifications, or certificates above, please indicate the name of each in the box below.

13. In what setting do you primarily work?

Hospital – Emergency Department

Hospital – Trauma Center

Hospital – Pediatric Emergency Department

Hospital – Pediatric Trauma Center

Hospital – ICU (Neonatal ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Pediatric ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Neuro ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Coronary/Cardiothoracic ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Trauma ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Surgical ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Other than those listed above)

Hospital – Burn Unit

Hospital – Neurological Unit

Transport – Ground

Transport – Air (Fixed Wing)

Transport – Air (Rotor Wing)

Transport – Air (Both Fixed Wing and Rotor Wing)

Transport – Both Ground and Air (Rotor Wing)

Transport – Both Ground and Air (Fixed Wing)

Transport – Both Ground and Air (Both Fixed Wing and Rotor Wing)

Transport – Commercial Medical Escort

Nursing Home/Extended Care/Assisted Living Facility

Rehabilitation Center

Free–standing Emergency Department

Urgent Care

Home Health

Correctional Facility

Academic Setting

Public Health

Community Health

School Health Service

Occupational Health

Ambulatory Care Setting

Insurance Claims/Benefits

Policy/Planning/Regulatory/Licensing Agency

Other (please specify)

13a. (If Transport) On average, how many calls does your unit respond to in a 24–hour period?

13b. (If Hospital [but not ICU]) What is the bed count of the hospital where you work?

13c. (If Hospital or Pediatric Trauma Center) What type of trauma center do you work in?

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V

14. Please indicate the proportion of your time that you spend in each of the following activities at your primary nursing position (values must add to 100%):

Direct patient care

Documenting

Administrative responsibilities

Other

14a. If you indicated a percentage greater than zero for “Other,” please explain below.

15. For the time you spend on direct patient care, please indicate the proportion of your time you spend working with patients in each of the categories below (values must add to 100%). If you do not currently work in direct patient care in your primary nursing position, please leave this question blank.

Injury (burn, car crash, fall, gunshot wound, etc.)

Medical Emergencies (heart attack, stroke, asthma, etc.)

Behavioral Health

Other

15a. If you indicated a percentage greater than zero for “Other,” please explain below.

16. Approximately what percentage of your time in direct patient care is spent with patients in each of the following age categories (values must add to 100%)? If you do not currently work in direct patient care in your primary nursing position, please leave this question blank.

Infants and children (0 years to approximately 12 years)

Adolescents (approximately 13 years to approximately 18 years)

Adults (approximately 19 years to approximately 65 years)

Older adults (approximately 66 years and older)

17. Please indicate the number of years you have worked in the areas of the nursing field listed below, including in your current primary nursing position. You may leave the areas where you have not worked blank. If less than 1 year, please use decimals, such as .25 for 3 months. If you worked in the medical field in an area other than as a nurse (for example, as an EMT) then list that area in the “Other” category. If you worked in two areas at the same time (for example, fixed wing and rotor wing) then divide the time you spent between the two areas (for example, if you worked 10 years doing both fixed wing and rotor wing flights, but only 10% of your time was spent doing fixed wing flights, then enter 1 for fixed wing and 9 for rotor wing).

Hospital – Emergency Department (not including Trauma Centers or Pediatric Emergency Departments)

Hospital – Trauma Center (not including Pediatric Trauma Centers)

Hospital – Pediatric Emergency Department

Hospital – Pediatric Trauma Center

Hospital – ICU (Neonatal ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Pediatric ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Neuro ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Coronary/Cardiothoracic ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Trauma ICU)

Hospital – ICU (Surgical ICU)

Hospital – ICU (other: please specify)

Hospital – Burn Unit (not including ICU)

Hospital – Neurological Unit (not including ICU)

Hospital – Cardiology (not including ICU)

Hospital – General surgery (not including ICU)

Hospital – Other (not including ICU, please specify)

Transport – Ground (Nurse)

Transport – Air (Fixed Wing)

Transport – Air (Rotor Wing)

Transport – Commercial Medical Escort

Nursing Home/Extended Care/Assisted Living Facility

Rehabilitation Center

Free–standing Emergency Department

Urgent Care

Home Health

Correctional Facility

Academic Setting

Public Health

School Health Service

Occupational Health

Ambulatory Care Setting

Insurance Claims/Benefits

Policy/Planning/Regulatory/Licensing Agency

Other (please specify)

18. What positions and experiences have been most beneficial in preparing you for your current primary nursing position? If you are not currently employed, please answer regarding your most recent emergency/trauma/transport nursing position.

19a. Please indicate the type of military experience you have. (select all that apply)

None

National Guard

Army

Air Force

Navy

Marines

Coast Guard

Other (please specify)

19b. How has your military service impacted your current work as an emergency/trauma/transport nurse? If you are not currently employed, please answer regarding your most recent emergency/trauma/transport nursing role.

20. How many hours do you work during a typical week? Please indicate how many hours you actually work, instead of how many hours you're scheduled to work. As with all questions on the pages in this section, please answer regarding your primary nursing position.

21. On average, how many days per week do you typically work in your primary nursing position?

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

22. What is your typical work schedule?

As–needed shifts

Part–time (less than 8–hour shifts)

8–hour shifts

12–hour shifts

24–hour shifts

36–hour shifts

48–hour shifts

72–hour shifts

Other (please specify)

23. When does your shift begin?

Morning

Afternoon

Evening

Middle of the night

Varies

Other (please specify)

24. How many hours do you typically work compared with what you were hired to work?

Far fewer hours than I was hired to work

Fewer hours than I was hired to work

About the same number of hours I was hired to work

More hours than I was hired to work

Far more hours than I was hired to work

25. How often are you assigned mandatory overtime?

More than once per week

Once per week

Two to three times per month

Once per month

A few times a year

Once a year

Almost never

Never

26. How would you describe your workload?

Far too light

A bit too light

About right

Too heavy

Overwhelming

27. How would you describe the staffing level of nurses in your organization?

Understaffed

About right

Overstaffed

28. Which best describes the main setting of your work?

Urban

Suburban

Rural

Other (please specify)

29. What responsibilities/duties do you have that fall outside the typical scope of patient care (because of understaffing, because of the unique nature of emergency/trauma/transport nursing, etc.)? If you are not currently employed, please answer regarding your most recent emergency/trauma/transport nursing role. If you do not work in patient care, you may skip this question.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Section 3: Job Attitudes and Resources

30. Which resources does your primary employer provide to support your professional growth and development? Of the resources/professional growth opportunities that your employer does provide, which have you used? Note that “company–provided time” indicates that you do not need to use time off (either paid time off, unpaid time off, or times outside the typical work day) for the specific activity.

Table

Table

31. What other resources not listed on the previous pages does your primary employer provide to support your professional growth and development? Have you used these resource(s)? If you are not currently employed, please answer regarding your most recent emergency/trauma/transport nursing role.

32. Of the resources below, please indicate the top three resources that you wish your employer would provide. Please use the “other” box at the bottom to list any other resources you wish your employer would provide.

On–site continuing–education credits at no cost

Funding for continuing–education credits

Company–provided time for obtaining continuing–education credits (provided on–site, online, or off–site)

Funding for obtaining advanced certifications

Company–provided time for obtaining advanced certifications

Tuition assistance for obtaining an advanced degree

Company–provided time to obtain an advanced degree

Unpaid time off to obtain an advanced degree

Training by staff (either on the job or in a classroom)

Training by medical company/equipment representatives (either on the job or in a classroom)

Cross–training to other units, vehicles, or patient types

Funding for attending conferences

Company–provided time for attending conferences

Membership fees for professional organizations

Hospital library or subscription for medical journals

Formal mentoring program by other nurses

Expert nurse that nurses can turn to for guidance

Other (please specify)

33. Please indicate your agreement with the following statements regarding your primary nursing position.

Table

Table

34. What type of training and development do you feel most in need of? (select up to 3)

Training on specific types of equipment

Leadership/management training

Crisis management training

Training for reducing medical errors

Training on infection control best practices

Electronic medical record system training

Stress management training

Patient experience training

Injury prevention

Workplace violence/incivility/bullying

Other (please specify)

Table

Table

34a. If you indicated in the question above that you are in most need of training on specific types of equipment, please describe the equipment here. If you did not indicate you are in most need of this type of training, please leave the field blank.

35. Using the scale below, please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding your primary nursing position.

Table

Table

36. Using the scale below, please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding your primary nursing position.

37. Overall, based on your definition of burnout, how would you rate your level of burnout?

I enjoy my work. I have no symptoms of burnout.

Occasionally I am under stress, and I don't always have as much energy as I once did, but I don't feel burned out.

I am definitely burning out and have one or more symptoms of burnout, such as physical and emotional exhaustion.

The symptoms of burnout that I'm experiencing won't go away. I think about frustration at work a lot.

I feel completely burned out and often wonder if I can go on. I am at the point where I may need some changes or may need to seek some sort of help.

38. What resources does your employer provide to deal with the stress of the job and/or help prevent burnout? (select all that apply)

Access to counselors

Meditation training (e.g., mindfulness)

Training on managing stress

Training on dealing with burnout

Training on self–care strategies

Conflict resolution

Time management

None

Other (please specify)

39. What resources would you like your employer to provide to deal with stress/burnout?

Back to Top | Article Outline

Section 4: Job Outlook

40. How many more years do you plan to stay in your current primary nursing position?

1 = Less than 1 year

2 = 1-4 years

3 = 5-9 years

4 = 10-19 years

5 = 20+ years

41. How many more years do you plan to stay with your current organization (that is, the organization in which you have your current primary nursing position)?

Less than 1 year

1-4 years

5-9 years

10-19 years

20+ years

42. How many more years do you plan to stay in the field of emergency/trauma/transport nursing?

Less than 1 year

1-4 years

5-9 years

10-19 years

20+ years

43. What are your career plans in the next 5 to 10 years? (select all that apply)

Continue working in your current role

Obtain specialty nursing certification

Move into a supervisory role within your specialty

Move into a management role within your organization

Move into a management role in another organization

Move into a nursing role in another specialty

Become an advanced practice nurse (nurse practitioner, nurse anesthetist, etc.)

Move into another healthcare practitioner role outside of nursing (e.g., physician assistant)

Move into a role outside of healthcare

Move into an academic role

Move into a nursing education role

Retire from nursing

Other (please specify)

44. Based on current trends, what do you perceive as the forecast for the number of nursing professionals in your specific industry in the next 5 to 10 years? (If you are in transport nursing, answer regarding transport nurses, if you are in emergency nursing, answer regarding emergency nurses, etc.)

Extreme shortage

Shortage

About right

More than needed

Far more than needed

45. What would be the most helpful in the next 5 to 10 years to ensure that there is a sufficient number of emergency/trauma/transport nurses in the US? (You may select up to 3; if you are in transport nursing, answer regarding transport nurses, if you are in emergency nursing, answer regarding emergency nurses, etc.)

Higher pay

More publicity regarding the profession of emergency/trauma/transport nursing

More reasonable hours

More discussion of the profession in nursing school

More employer support of nursing in general

Improved nurse–to–patient ratios

Other (please specify)

46. When you entered the field of emergency/trauma/transport nursing, what were your long–term career plans? (select all that apply)

Continue working in that role for remainder of career

Move into a supervisory role within the specialty

Move into a management role within the organization

Move into a management role in another organization

Move into a nursing role in another specialty

Become an advanced practice nurse (nurse practitioner, nurse anesthetist, etc.)

Move into another healthcare practitioner role outside of nursing (e.g., physician assistant)

Move into an academic role

Move into a nursing education role

Move into a role outside of healthcare

No specific plans

Other (please specify)

47a. We are interested in understanding the typical career path for someone in your emergency/trauma/transport nursing position. Please indicate how common the following career paths are for someone in your current primary nursing position.

Table

Table

47b. Please list any other typical career paths, along with how common they are using the same scale as above.

48. What skill or ability shortages currently exist among nurses in your field of emergency/trauma/transport nursing? (Select all that apply. If you are in transport nursing, answer regarding transport nurses, if you are in emergency nursing, answer regarding emergency nurses, etc.)

Stress management

Decision–making under pressure

General clinical knowledge and skills

Interpersonal skills

Leadership skills

Mentorship skills

Time management

Critical thinking

Other (please specify)

49. In what ways are new recruits to your specialty in emergency/trauma/ transport nursing unprepared? (Select all that apply. If you are in emergency nursing, answer regarding emergency nurses, etc.)

Stress management

Decision–making under pressure

General clinical knowledge and skills

Interpersonal skills

Unrealistic job expectations

Time management

Critical thinking

Other (please specify)

50. In what ways must nursing education be adjusted to prepare nurses for emergency/trauma/transport nursing as it will exist in the future? (Select all that apply. If you are in emergency nursing, answer regarding emergency nurses, etc.)

More training on technology

More hands–on training

More pharmacologic training

Better simulations

More training on interpersonal skills

More leadership development training

Other (please specify)

51. What are the biggest challenges you see that emergency/trauma/transport nursing faces overall?

Back to Top | Article Outline

Section 5: Impact

52. We would like to help others understand how vital a role emergency/trauma/transport nurses have. To explore this, please provide an example of when you, or one of your nursing colleagues, did something that had an important impact on human, medical, or operational outcomes. Please describe the situation and location, what happened, your response, and the resolution or outcomes. Do not use specific names of people or places.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Section 6: Demographics

53. What is your gender?

I prefer not to answer.

Male

Female

Other

54. What is your race/ethnicity? (select all that apply)

Native American or Alaska Native

Asian

Black

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

White

Hispanic

Other (please specify)

Table

Table

55. In what year were you born? (drop down list from 1900 to 2005)

56. To what organizations do you belong? (select all that apply)

Air & Surface Transport Nurses Association (ASTNA)

Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing (BCEN)

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA)

Society of Trauma Nurses (STN)

Other (please specify)

57. What type of nursing degree/credential qualified you for your first US nursing license?

Vocational/Practical certificate–nursing

Diploma–nursing

Associate degree–nursing

Bachelor's degree–nursing

Master's degree–nursing

Doctoral degree–nursing (PhD)

Doctoral degree–nursing (DNP)

58. In what zip code do you primarily work?

59. Please indicate the locations in which you are currently practicing as a nurse. (select all that apply)

60. What is your annual salary for your primary nursing position?

Less than $35,000

$35,000-$39,999

$40,000-$44,999

$45,000-$49,999

$50,000-$54,999

$55,000-$59,999

$60,000-$64,999

$65,000-$69,999

$70,000-$74,999

$75,000-$79,999

$80,000-$84,999

$85,000-$89,999

$90,000-$94,999

$95,000-$99,999

$100,000-$104,999

$105,000-$109,999

$110,000-$114,999

$115,000-$119,999

$120,000-$124,999

$125,000-$129,999

$130,000-$134,999

$135,000-$139,999

$140,000-$149,999

$150,000-$159,999

$160,000-$169,999

$170,000-$179,999

$180,000-$189,999

$190,000-$199,999

$200,000 or more

Throughout the survey, there were multiple questions asking you to type a response. When reporting results of these types of studies, sometimes it helps to provide verbatim responses from such questions to highlight certain themes that arose. May we have permission to use your verbatim responses in our reporting of this study. Note that at no point will we ever link your responses to your identity.

Yes

No

Thank you very much for completing the survey. If you would like to enter the drawing for one of the 20 $200 gift cards, please click the link below. The link will take you to a separate page where you can enter your email. By redirecting you to another page, we are making it so that your email address is stored in a separate dataset from the rest of your data. Once the survey closes, we will randomly select the winners. Winners will be notified via email by March 14, 2019. Click here for full details regarding the drawing.

Note that the gift card can be used at a variety of retailers or donated to a variety of nonprofit organizations.

Thank you again for completing the survey. To be entered into the drawing for one of 20 $200 gift cards, please enter your email address below. Your email address will be stored in a separate dataset from the rest of your survey data. For full details regarding the drawing, please click here.

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