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Type 2 diabetes: Growing to epic proportions

doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000410740.51779.30
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INSTRUCTIONS Type 2 diabetes: Growing to epic proportions


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Type 2 diabetes: Growing to epic proportions

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide the professional registered nurse with data related to the increasing incidence of diabetes and the seriousness of its complications. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the incidence, pathophysiology, and complications of diabetes. 2. Describe actions that can be taken to prevent or treat diabetes and its complications.

  1. What percentage of the U.S. population has diabetes?
    1. 8.3%
    2. 10.1%
    3. 12.7%
    4. 15.3%
  2. What percentage of people with diabetes is at least age 65?
    1. 25%
    2. 33%
    3. 50%
    4. 66%
  3. Diabetes is the leading cause of all of the following except
    1. kidney failure.
    2. adult-onset blindness.
    3. cardiovascular disease.
    4. lower limb amputations.
  4. In uncontrolled diabetes, glucose remains in the blood along with
    1. fats.
    2. glycogen.
    3. amino acids.
    4. carbohydrates.
  5. Destruction of pancreatic beta cells by the autoimmune system results in
    1. type 1 diabetes.
    2. type 2 diabetes.
    3. gestational diabetes.
    4. prediabetes.
  6. People with prediabetes have a
    1. HbA1c between 6.5 and 7.0.
    2. body mass index greater than 32 despite normal blood glucose.
    3. fasting blood glucose level greater than 126 mg/dL.
    4. 2-hour glucose tolerance between 140 and 199 mg/dL.
  7. Which risk factor increases a person's risk of diabetes?
    1. depression
    2. high cholesterol level
    3. history of multiple infections
    4. history of autoimmune disease
  8. Exercise is critical for patients with diabetes primarily because it
    1. helps metabolize lipids and fats.
    2. helps burn extra glucose and glycogen.
    3. prevents glycogen release by the liver.
    4. increases the body's sensitivity to insulin.
  9. The first medication recommended for type 2 diabetes is
    1. metformin.
    2. a sulfonylurea.
    3. a thiazolidinedione.
    4. a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog.
  10. Which class of drugs assists in insulin production, as well as reduction of blood glucose without the risk of hypoglycemia?
    1. thiazolidinedione.
    2. peptide-1 analogs.
    3. metformin analogs.
    4. sulfonylurea analogs.
  11. Which complication of diabetes carries the greatest morbidity?
    1. renal failure
    2. microvascular events
    3. stroke and ischemic heart disease
    4. diabetic neuropathy and amputations
  12. People with diabetes should have eye exams every
    1. 3 months.
    2. 6 months.
    3. 1 year.
    4. 2 years.
  13. To prevent renal disease, guidelines suggest placing patients with diabetes on
    1. a calcium channel blocker.
    2. a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog.
    3. a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor.
    4. an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.
  14. Which isn't identified as a risk factor for lower leg amputation?
    1. increasing age
    2. infections
    3. chronic leg ulcers
    4. peripheral neuropathy
  15. The author calls on nurses to decrease the morbidity of diabetes by
    1. educating communities.
    2. becoming certified diabetic educators.
    3. providing better education to nursing unlicensed assistive personnel about diabetes.
    4. ensuring better follow-up care to patients with diabetes.
  16. If current trends continue, how many American adults will have diabetes by 2050?
    1. 1 out of 2
    2. 1 out of 3
    3. 1 out of 4
    4. 1 out of 5
  17. In youths under age 20, which ethnic group has the highest incidence of diabetes?
    1. non-Hispanic Whites
    2. Asian Americans
    3. non-Hispanic Blacks
    4. Hispanics
  18. CDC guidelines indicate the risk of blindness can be reduced by 50% to 60% through
    1. treating diabetic eye disease with laser therapy.
    2. controlling BP.
    3. reducing HbA1c.
    4. improving control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


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