INSTRUCTIONS Coronary artery disease: The plaque plague
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Coronary artery disease: The plaque plague
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about the causes and symptoms of CAD, as well as treatments and prevention strategies. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading the article and taking this test, you'll be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiologic changes in CAD. 2. Explain the symptoms of CAD and the diagnostic tests used to detect it. 3. Discuss the treatments used in CAD.
- What percentage of the 785,000 Americans who have an MI each year will have a second MI?
- The most common configuration of vulnerable plaque is a
- blood clot with a thin cap.
- lipid core with a hard cap.
- lipid core with a thin cap.
- Microvessels develop around plaque to
- bring nutrients to the viable cells that remain.
- allow blood circulation to bypass the plaque blockage.
- deliver enzymes to dissolve the plaque.
- A major danger created by the microvessels developing around the plaque is
- an increase in the size of the plaque.
- occlusion of the main vessel.
- dislodgement of the plaque.
- A common symptom absent in one-third of patients experiencing an MI is
- pain radiating to the neck.
- chest pain.
- Decreased cardiac output is responsible for
- low urine output.
- a rise in biomarkers.
- The shortened period of diastole during an MI means less blood is delivered to the
- heart muscle.
- Which ECG lead is used for a prominent display of the P-wave and QRS complex?
- Elevation of the ST segment of 0.5 mm or more often indicates
- partial blockage of a coronary artery.
- a possible infarct.
- Activity on the right side of the heart is observed with the
- anterior lead V7.
- inferior leads, such as aVF or II.
- V6 and V7 leads on the patient's back.
- Peak CK-MB levels indicating heart muscle damage after chest pain occur at
- 6 hours.
- 12 hours.
- 24 hours.
- An active MI is suggested by two CK-MB readings greater than
- 0.5 U/L.
- 3 U/L.
- 5 U/L.
- The main MI biomarker that detects even trace amounts of heart damage is
- troponin I.
- creatine kinase.
- Keeping oxygen saturation above 95% by nasal cannula
- can reverse cardiac muscle damage.
- reduces activation of TXA2.
- can lessen ischemic pain.
- Which statement about nitroglycerin is accurate?
- It's available only as sublingual tabs or for I.V. infusion.
- It's the first drug given for pain relief of an MI.
- It's a potent vasoconstrictor.
- Which antiplatelet aggregation drug depends on low-dose aspirin to achieve its desired effect?
- The antiplatelet aggregation drug contraindicated in patients with a history of intracranial bleeding is
- Which statement about patients taking warfarin isn't accurate?
- The antidote for warfarin is protamine sulfate.
- Older patients are at increased risk for intracranial bleeds.
- Patients should eat consistent amounts of foods containing vitamin K.
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