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Congestive heart failure: An 'F' isn't an option

doi: 10.1097/01.NME.0000412422.90432.9c
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INSTRUCTIONS Congestive heart failure: An 'F' isn't an option




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Congestive heart failure: An 'F' isn't an option

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide the professional nurse with an overview of CHF and implications for nursing practice. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Explain the pathophysiology, symptoms, and classifications of CHF. 2. Identify the diagnostic tests, treatments, and nursing considerations for patients with CHF.

  1. The most common cause of left-sided CHF is
    1. hypertension.
    2. cardiomyopathy of the right atrium.
    3. CAD.
  2. You can help relieve orthopnea by
    1. having your patient stand or sit up.
    2. having your patient lie down.
    3. placing your patient in a Trendelenburg position.
  3. One symptom of left-sided CHF is
    1. crackles.
    2. ascites.
    3. jugular venous distention.
  4. Fluid buildup in the smaller airways of the lungs can result in any of the following symptoms except
    1. crackles.
    2. pleural rub.
    3. wheezing.
  5. Which heart sound indicates a faulty heart valve?
    1. S3
    2. S4
    3. murmur
  6. An S4 is best assessed with your stethoscope's
    1. diaphragm over the heart's apex.
    2. bell over the heart's apex.
    3. bell over the aorta.
  7. Right-sided CHF and enlargement of the right ventricle
    1. produces increased fluid buildup in the lungs.
    2. results in pulmonic valve stenosis.
    3. can be caused by pulmonary hypertension.
  8. In right-sided CHF, elevated right atrial pressure and retrograde blood flow can cause
    1. pink, frothy foam when the patient coughs.
    2. jugular venous distension.
    3. an S3 heart sound.
  9. On the edema grading scale, moderate pitting is documented as
    1. +2.
    2. +3.
    3. +4.
  10. According to the ACC/AHA classifications, which of the following isn't a risk factor for developing heart failure?
    1. diabetes
    2. CAD
    3. family history of MI
  11. The New York Heart Association classifies a person experiencing tiredness with ordinary activity as
    1. Class I (mild).
    2. Class II (mild).
    3. Class III (moderate).
  12. A BNP level of 278 png/mL is
    1. normal.
    2. indicative of CHF.
    3. diagnostic of severe CHF.
  13. A normal EF is between
    1. 30% and 40%.
    2. 50% and 70%.
    3. 80% and 90%.
  14. Cardiac catheterization of the left side of the heart is used to
    1. determine if there are occlusions causing ischemia of the myocardium.
    2. assess the fluid status and pressures within the heart.
    3. measure the amount of blood remaining in the ventricle after systole.
  15. Which type of medication is used to improve the contraction strength of the ventricles?
    1. inotropic agents
    2. beta-blockers
    3. ACE inhibitors
  16. Patients taking ACE inhibitors may
    1. experience a significant rise in BP.
    2. can develop a chronic cough.
    3. have falsely negative BNP levels.
  17. Which type of diuretic is considered potassium-sparing?
    1. thiazides
    2. aldosterone antagonists
    3. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  18. Patients with electrically induced bradycardia may benefit from
    1. a VAD.
    2. cardioversion.
    3. a pacemaker.
  19. Which of the following instructions is generally given to patients with CHF?
    1. Restrict sodium to no more than 2 g/day.
    2. Restrict fluid to no more than 1 L/day.
    3. Alert your healthcare provider about a weight gain of 1 to 2 lb/week.




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