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Type 2 diabetes: Stopping the epidemic

doi: 10.1097/01.NME.0000410250.49867.21
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INSTRUCTIONS Type 2 diabetes: Stopping the epidemic




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Type 2 diabetes: Stopping the epidemic

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide the professional nurse with information about type 2 diabetes and its treatment. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Identify the prevalence and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. 2. Describe lifestyle changes that can help reduce the complications of type 2 diabetes. 3. Explain treatment modalities for type 2 diabetes.

  1. Which statement about type 2 diabetes is correct?
    1. It always presents before age 20.
    2. It accounts for 95% of diabetes cases.
    3. It results from overactive pancreatic beta cells.
  2. Prediabetes is associated with
    1. frequent ketoacidosis.
    2. antibodies attacking beta cells.
    3. the development of insulin resistance.
  3. Which lifestyle change intensifies insulin action and lowers blood glucose?
    1. healthier eating habits
    2. exercise
    3. smoking cessation
  4. DKA is characterized by dehydration and
    1. a decrease in pulse.
    2. an increase in BP.
    3. exhalation of fruity-odor breath.
  5. High blood glucose levels cause slower gastric emptying by the release of
    1. glycogen.
    2. angiotensin II.
    3. pancreatic amylase.
  6. High blood glucose levels lead to blindness by causing
    1. myelin sheath depletion.
    2. antibodies to attack eye structures.
    3. neurovascular disease in the retina.
  7. A blood glucose level of 120 mg/dL after 8 hours of fasting is indicative of
    1. normal glucose metabolism.
    2. prediabetes.
    3. diabetes.
  8. The controlled diabetic patient's HbA1C value should be less than
    1. 6.5%.
    2. 7.5%.
    3. 8%.
  9. Diabetes is associated with
    1. high triglyceride levels.
    2. elevated high-density lipoprotein levels.
    3. decreased low-density lipoprotein levels.
  10. With which blood glucose level is it appropriate for a patient with diabetes to exercise?
    1. 70 mg/dL.
    2. 130 mg/dL.
    3. 255 mg/dL.
  11. A 22-year-old man with diabetes should perform moderate exercise
    1. 75 minute/week.
    2. 150 minute/week.
    3. 200 minute/week.
  12. The patient with diabetes should engage in anaerobic exercise such as
    1. biking.
    2. sprinting.
    3. swimming.
  13. How does metformin work to control blood glucose?
    1. It reduces the liver's glucose production.
    2. It stimulates pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin.
    3. It reverses insulin resistance.
  14. An example of a sulfonylurea is
    1. glyburide.
    2. metformin.
    3. pioglitazone.
  15. A medication used to treat diabetes that has been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction is
    1. glipizide.
    2. metformin.
    3. rosiglitazone.
  16. Insulin must be initiated if the patient's
    1. fasting blood glucose exceeds 300 mg/dL.
    2. triglyceride level exceeds 250 mg/dL.
    3. HbA1C exceeds 6.5%.
  17. Bolus insulins are given to control blood glucose levels
    1. overnight.
    2. for postmeal spikes.
    3. long-term during daytime hours.
  18. HbA1C measures the average postmeal plasma glucose over the previous
    1. 1 to 2 weeks.
    2. 2 to 3 months.
    3. 1 to 2 months.




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