This is the first part of a general overview of the electrolytes tested and I.V. fluids used in critical care areas. The article focuses on imbalances in sodium and water, and describes the common causes, signs and symptoms, and available treatments for correcting electrolyte abnormalities and fluid imbalances.
At Duquesne University School of Nursing in Pittsburgh, Pa., Alicia L. Culleiton is an assistant clinical professor and Lynn C. Simko is an associate clinical professor.
The "critical care shuffle" of abnormalities can threaten patient outcomes. Find out how to respond.