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Understanding diabetic foot ulcers

doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000435542.41592.e5
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INSTRUCTIONS Understanding diabetic foot ulcers


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  • You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.
  • Registration deadline is October 31, 2015.
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Understanding diabetic foot ulcers

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide nurses with information on the prevention and management of diabetic foot ulcers. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Identify assessment techniques for patients with diabetes to help minimize foot ulcer risk. 2. Identify appropriate treatment options for patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

  1. About what percentage of all nontraumatic amputations in patients with diabetes are preceded by foot ulcers?
    1. 50%
    2. 60%
    3. 70%
    4. 80%
  2. Decreased skin temperature may indicate
    1. infection.
    2. fractures.
    3. poor perfusion.
    4. inflammation.
  3. Hyperglycemia triggers metabolic and cellular abnormalities that lead to
    1. low levels of advanced glycation end-products.
    2. enhanced leukocyte function.
    3. delayed wound healing.
    4. increased phagocytosis.
  4. Charcot foot is often characterized by
    1. an outward bowing of the arch.
    2. absent pedal pulses.
    3. displacement of fat pads.
    4. pallor.
  5. Autonomic neuropathy may cause which of the following?
    1. dryness of the skin
    2. joint displacement
    3. excessive sweating
    4. cyanosis
  6. A warning sign of a fungal infection involving the foot is
    1. a rocker-bottom appearance.
    2. hyperkeratosis.
    3. blisters.
    4. maceration between the toes.
  7. Noncompressible arteries can falsely elevate
    1. transcutaneous oxygen tension.
    2. TBI.
    3. skin temperature.
    4. ABI.
  8. Which of the following represents normal TBI values?
    1. 0.2 to 0.4
    2. 0.7 to 0.8
    3. 1.2 to 1.8
    4. 2.4 to 2.6
  9. Physical findings of advanced lower extremity PAD include
    1. atrophic skin.
    2. bounding pedal pulses.
    3. brisk capillary refill time.
    4. excessive hair.
  10. Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers should include consideration of
    1. topical steroids.
    2. plantar pressure redistribution.
    3. hyperbaric oxygen.
    4. therapeutic ultrasound.
  11. Patients with a previous ulcer should be reevaluated by a foot specialist every
    1. 5 to 7 days.
    2. 2 to 4 weeks.
    3. 6 to 12 weeks.
    4. 6 to 12 months.
  12. Which is most effective for destroying the biofilm structure in healable wounds?
    1. a contact cast
    2. topical antimicrobials
    3. antibacterial dressings
    4. surgical debridement
  13. Increased surface bacterial burden may be treated with
    1. imidaxole.
    2. silver.
    3. allylamines.
    4. thiazoles.
  14. Deep tissue wound infection should be treated with
    1. systemic antimicrobials.
    2. honey.
    3. polyhexamethylene biguanide.
    4. cadexomer iodine.
  15. Osteomyelitis should be suspected if
    1. the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is normal.
    2. ulcers involve subcutaneous tissue.
    3. ulcers probe to bone.
    4. C-reactive protein is normal.
  16. In unhealable wounds, consider the use of a cytotoxic agent such as
    1. fusidic acid.
    2. povidone-iodine.
    3. cadexomer iodine.
    4. imidaxole.
  17. Which dressing is indicated for dry wounds?
    1. hydrofiber
    2. foam
    3. alginates
    4. hydrogels
  18. Every cigarette decreases the circulation in the legs for an hour by up to
    1. 15%.
    2. 30%.
    3. 45%.
    4. 60%.


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