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A closer look at lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000529827.53675.b0
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INSTRUCTIONS A closer look at lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

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PROVIDER ACCREDITATION

Lippincott Professional Development will award 1.0 contact hour for this continuing nursing education activity.

Lippincott Professional Development is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.

Lippincott Professional Development is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida CE Broker #50-1223. This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 1.0 contact hour.

A closer look at lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide nurses with information about lower extremity PAD. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing-education activity, you should be able to: 1. Identify the risk factors for PAD. 2. Describe the pathophysiology of PAD. 3. List the signs and symptoms of PAD.

  1. Which patients tend to have a lower incidence of PAD?
  2. Hispanic
    Black
    non-Hispanic White
  3. The risk of death from a cardiac event is how much higher for those with PAD than for those without PAD?
  4. two to three times
    four to five times
    six to eight times
  5. Factors associated with the regulation of thrombosis include
  6. prostacyclin.
    interleukins.
    interferons.
  7. Risk factors for PAD include all of the following except
  8. coronary artery disease.
    normotension.
    smoking.
  9. Generally an artery has narrowed by at least how much before the patient with PAD begins to develop intermittent claudication?
  10. 30%
    40%
    50%
  11. Claudication is typically described as
  12. fatigue from the hips to the feet.
    induced by walking.
    relieved by exercise.
  13. As PAD progresses, leg elevation causes
  14. pallor.
    rubor.
    pain relief.
  15. Which physical assessment finding of the lower extremities is consistent with PAD?
  16. normal pedal pulses
    pitting edema
    thickened, ridged toenails
  17. When assessing for skin color changes, maximal pallor of the feet usually develops within 1 minute when the
  18. patient is in a prone position.
    legs are elevated to about 60 degrees.
    legs are placed in a dependent position.
  19. Nurses can assess for postural color changes in darker-skinned patients by inspecting the
  20. soles of the feet.
    dorsal aspect of the feet.
    nailbeds of the feet.
  21. According to Gerhard-Herman et al., what may be the only test required to establish the diagnosis of PAD?
  22. ABI
    magnetic resonance angiography
    skin perfusion pressure
  23. When calculating the ABI,
  24. divide the higher right or left arm pressure by the higher dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial pressure.
    divide the higher dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial pressure by the higher right or left arm pressure.
    divide the lower dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial pressure by the higher right or left arm pressure.
  25. Normal resting ABI is
  26. 0.40 to 0.90.
    0.91 to 0.99.
    1.00 to 1.40.
  27. What's the most effective exercise to treat intermittent claudication?
  28. swimming
    yoga
    walking
  29. An adverse reaction to cilostazol is
  30. extremity pallor.
    palpitations.
    increased claudication.
  31. In patients with PAD, where do ulcerations usually develop?
  32. points of trauma on feet
    lateral malleolus
    plantar aspect of foot
  33. When claudication occurs, stenosis or occlusion is most commonly found in the superficial femoral and
  34. posterior tibial arteries.
    dorsalis pedis arteries.
    proximal popliteal arteries.
  35. Education for a patient with PAD should include
  36. applying moisturizer between toes.
    wearing properly fitting footwear.
    inspecting feet and legs monthly.
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