INSTRUCTIONS Understanding diabetic foot ulcers
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- Registration deadline is October 31, 2015.
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Understanding diabetic foot ulcers
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide nurses with information on the prevention and management of diabetic foot ulcers. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to: 1. Identify assessment techniques for patients with diabetes to help minimize foot ulcer risk. 2. Identify appropriate treatment options for patients with diabetic foot ulcers.
- About what percentage of all nontraumatic amputations in patients with diabetes are preceded by foot ulcers?
- Decreased skin temperature may indicate
- poor perfusion.
- Hyperglycemia triggers metabolic and cellular abnormalities that lead to
- low levels of advanced glycation end-products.
- enhanced leukocyte function.
- delayed wound healing.
- increased phagocytosis.
- Charcot foot is often characterized by
- an outward bowing of the arch.
- absent pedal pulses.
- displacement of fat pads.
- Autonomic neuropathy may cause which of the following?
- dryness of the skin
- joint displacement
- excessive sweating
- A warning sign of a fungal infection involving the foot is
- a rocker-bottom appearance.
- maceration between the toes.
- Noncompressible arteries can falsely elevate
- transcutaneous oxygen tension.
- skin temperature.
- Which of the following represents normal TBI values?
- 0.2 to 0.4
- 0.7 to 0.8
- 1.2 to 1.8
- 2.4 to 2.6
- Physical findings of advanced lower extremity PAD include
- atrophic skin.
- bounding pedal pulses.
- brisk capillary refill time.
- excessive hair.
- Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers should include consideration of
- topical steroids.
- plantar pressure redistribution.
- hyperbaric oxygen.
- therapeutic ultrasound.
- Patients with a previous ulcer should be reevaluated by a foot specialist every
- 5 to 7 days.
- 2 to 4 weeks.
- 6 to 12 weeks.
- 6 to 12 months.
- Which is most effective for destroying the biofilm structure in healable wounds?
- a contact cast
- topical antimicrobials
- antibacterial dressings
- surgical debridement
- Increased surface bacterial burden may be treated with
- Deep tissue wound infection should be treated with
- systemic antimicrobials.
- polyhexamethylene biguanide.
- cadexomer iodine.
- Osteomyelitis should be suspected if
- the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is normal.
- ulcers involve subcutaneous tissue.
- ulcers probe to bone.
- C-reactive protein is normal.
- In unhealable wounds, consider the use of a cytotoxic agent such as
- fusidic acid.
- cadexomer iodine.
- Which dressing is indicated for dry wounds?
- Every cigarette decreases the circulation in the legs for an hour by up to