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Evaluating the Usability of a Second-Generation Virtual Reality Game for Refreshing Sterile Urinary Catheterization Skills

Kardong-Edgren, Suzan, PhD, RN, ANEF, CHSE, FSSH, FAAN; Breitkreuz, Karen, EdD, MSN, RN, CNE, CHSE; Werb, Michael, BSN, RN; Foreman, Stephen, PhD; Ellertson, Anthony, PhD

doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000570
Nurse Educator: PDF Only

Background: Virtual reality (VR) allows risk- and anxiety-free practice, mediated by consistent objective feedback.

Purpose: This study evaluated the usability of a VR game system for sterile catheterization practice. Participant enjoyment, engagement, likelihood to practice, and comfort using VR are reported.

Methods: Thirty-one students and faculty tested a VR game using Oculus Rift devised to allow practice of placing a urinary catheter in a virtual patient. Data were collected via an electronic survey using the System Usability Survey (SUS) and a User Reaction Survey (URS).

Results: The SUS score was 64.03. Seventy-five percent of participants rated the game as positive overall on the URS. Left-handed players had more difficulty playing the game. Players with prescription glasses could not comfortably place the Oculus Rift over their glasses to play.

Conclusions: The VR game shows promise for refreshing sterile catheterization skills.

Author Affiliations: Professor and RISE Center Director (Dr Kardong-Edgren) and RISE Center Graduate Assistant (Mr Werb), School of Nursing and Health Sciences, and Associate Professor (Dr Foreman), Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania; and CQ Certified, Associate Professor (Dr Breitkreuz), School of Nursing, and Director and Clinical Associate Professor (Dr Ellertson), Games, Interactive Media and Mobile Program, College of Innovation & Design, Boise State University, Idaho.

A.E. and S.K.-E. developed the game and could have a perceived conflict of interest in the study and its results. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence: Dr Kardong-Edgren, School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Robert Morris University, 6001 University Blvd, Moon Township, PA 15108 (

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Accepted for publication: May 12, 2018

Published ahead of print: July 30, 2018

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