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Evaluating the Usability of a Second-Generation Virtual Reality Game for Refreshing Sterile Urinary Catheterization Skills

Kardong-Edgren, Suzan, PhD, RN, ANEF, CHSE, FSSH, FAAN; Breitkreuz, Karen, EdD, MSN, RN, CNE, CHSE; Werb, Michael, BSN, RN; Foreman, Stephen, PhD; Ellertson, Anthony, PhD

doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000570
Feature Articles

Background Virtual reality (VR) allows risk- and anxiety-free practice, mediated by consistent objective feedback.

Purpose This study evaluated the usability of a VR game system for sterile catheterization practice. Participant enjoyment, engagement, likelihood to practice, and comfort using VR are reported.

Methods Thirty-one students and faculty tested a VR game using Oculus Rift devised to allow practice of placing a urinary catheter in a virtual patient. Data were collected via an electronic survey using the System Usability Survey (SUS) and a User Reaction Survey (URS).

Results The SUS score was 64.03. Seventy-five percent of participants rated the game as positive overall on the URS. Left-handed players had more difficulty playing the game. Players with prescription glasses could not comfortably place the Oculus Rift over their glasses to play.

Conclusions The VR game shows promise for refreshing sterile catheterization skills.

Author Affiliations: Professor and RISE Center Director (Dr Kardong-Edgren) and RISE Center Graduate Assistant (Mr Werb), School of Nursing and Health Sciences, and Associate Professor (Dr Foreman), Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania; and CQ Certified, Associate Professor (Dr Breitkreuz), School of Nursing, and Director and Clinical Associate Professor (Dr Ellertson), Games, Interactive Media and Mobile Program, College of Innovation & Design, Boise State University, Idaho.

A.E. and S.K.-E. developed the game and could have a perceived conflict of interest in the study and its results. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence: Dr Kardong-Edgren, School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Robert Morris University, 6001 University Blvd, Moon Township, PA 15108 (

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Accepted for publication: May 12, 2018

Published ahead of print: July 30, 2018

Cite this article as: Kardong-Edgren S, Breitkreuz K, Werb M, Foreman S, Ellertson A. Evaluating the usability of a second-generation virtual reality game for refreshing sterile urinary catheterization skills. Nurse Educ. 2019;44(3):137-141. doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000570

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