This study evaluates the role of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in predicting the response to treatment in patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) who applied transarterial radioembolization (TARE) via the volumetric and texture features extracted from 18F-FDG PET/CT images.
Thirty-three patients with HCC who had applied TARE [lobar (LT) or superselective (ST)] after 18F-FDG PET/CT were included in the study. Response to the treatment was evaluated from posttherapy magnetic resonance (MR). Patients were divided into two groups: the responder group (RG) (complete responders) and non-RG (NRG) (including partial response, stabile, and progressive). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and texture features were extracted from PET/CT images. The differences among MTV, TLG, and texture features between response groups were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U test. ROC analysis was performed for features with P < 0.05. Spearman correlation analysis was used, and features with correlation coefficient < 0.8 were evaluated with the logistic regression analysis.
Significant differences were detected in TLG, MTV, SHAPE_compacity, GLCM_correlation, GLRLM_GLNU, GLRLM_RLNU, NGLDM_coarseness, NGLDM_busyness, GLZLM_LZHGE, GLZLM_GLNU, and GLZLM_ZLNU between RG and NRG. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MTV was the only meaningful parameter with an AUC of 0.827 (P = 0.002; 95% CI, 0.688–0.966). The best cutoff value was determined as 74.11 ml with 78.9% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity in discriminating nonresponders.
In predicting the curative effect of TARE, multivariate analysis results demonstrated that MTV was the only independent predictor, and MTV higher than 74.11 ml were determined the best predictor of nonresponders.