The successful management of infected pelvic pressure ulcer patients (PPUP) depends on the distinction between infections limited to soft tissue (STI) and those with underlying osteomyelitis (OM), which can be difficult to determine clinically. Dual-isotope (DI) comprehensive imaging has excellent accuracy in localizing diabetic foot infection and differentiating OM from STI with SPECT/CT utilization. In this study, we assess the accuracy and confidence of the different DI SPECT/CT imaging steps in PPUP with confirmed diagnoses.
Pelvic flow and blood pool imaging were followed by labeled white blood cell reinjection and Tc-99m hydroxymethylene-diphosphonate bone (bone scan) and In-111-leukocytes (white blood cell scan) DI planar and SPECT/CT (step 1) acquisitions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid (bone marrow scan)/WBCS SPECT/CT (step 2) images were obtained on the following day. DI step 1 planar, step 1 SPECT/CT, step 2 SPECT/CT, and combined step 1/step 2 SPECT/CT were reviewed separately for diagnosis and diagnosis confidence. The final diagnosis was confirmed by culture/pathology in 21 patients and clinical/imaging follow-up in 12 patients.
There were 19 OM patients, three STI patients, and 11 patients with no infection. The final diagnosis agreement to DI combined step 1/step 2 SPECT/CT was higher than DI step 2 or step 1 SPECT/CT alone, or DI step 1 planar, as assessed by λ and error reduction %, respectively. Combined DI step 1/step 2 SPECT/CT was more sensitive than DI step 2 SPECT/CT and more specific than DI step 1 SPECT/CT, and showed higher diagnostic confidence than both imaging techniques.
DI SPECT/CT is highly useful in evaluating PPUP with suspected infection. DI step 1 is more sensitive, whereas step 2 is more specific. Both step 1 and step 2 DI SPECT/CT images are needed to accurately and confidently assess for infection and distinguish OM from STI, which are crucial for optimal management.
aDepartment of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division
bDepartment of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Infectious Diseases Division
cDepartment of Orthopedics, Mount Sinai Medical Center
dIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
Correspondence to Sherif I. Heiba, MD, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1141, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA Tel: +1 212 241 9373; fax: +1 212 831 2851; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received September 28, 2016
Received in revised form November 1, 2016
Accepted November 3, 2016