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18F-FDG PET/CT of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastases

Senthil, Raja, MD*; Ramesh, H, MCh; Visakh R., Arun, MD*; Pratap, Thara, MD; Mahadevan, Pushpa, MD§

doi: 10.1097/RLU.0000000000002313
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Hepatocellular carcinoma usually metastasizes to regional abdominal lymph nodes. Distant lymph nodal metastases are relatively rare with most common extra abdominal sites being mediastinum and juxtaphrenic regions. Metastasis to internal mammary lymph nodes is extremely rare, and we present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma with histopathologically proven internal mammary lymph nodal metastasis in the absence of regional abdominal lymph nodal metastases.

From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT,


Radiology, and

§Pathology, VPS Lakeshore Hospital, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Received for publication May 22, 2018; revision accepted August 31, 2018.

Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared.

Correspondence to: Raja Senthil, MD, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, VPS Lakeshore Hospital, NH-47 By-pass, Maradu, Nettoor (PO), Kochi, Kerala, India 682040. E-mail:

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