68Ga-labeled fibroblast activation protein inhibitor (68Ga-FAPI-04) has been useful in the imaging of desmoplastic reaction in different tumors. As we have found that most female patients showed avid uterine uptake of 68Ga-FAPI-04, we sought to further investigate the pathological and physiological uptake of 68Ga-FAPI-04 characteristics in the uterus.
Patients and Methods
We reviewed the image data of female patients who had undergone 68Ga-FAPI-04 PET/MRI at our institute between May 22, 2020, and June 21, 2021. The characteristics of uterine uptake and clinical information were collected. The uterus with and without malignancy were compared. We further analyzed the relationship of age, uterus size, gynecological history, and 18F-FDG uptake (if performed) with 68Ga-FAPI-04 uptake.
Seventy-seven patients were included in this study. Much higher cervical 68Ga-FAPI-04 accumulation was noticed in cervical cancer patients than in normal cases, and 37 more metastases were found in 68Ga-FAPI-04 PET than that in 18F-FDG. Uterine body malignancies displayed different uptake features. Two cases with the metastases to uterine body showed relative lower 68Ga-FAPI-04 activity compared with their normal uteri. Of 67 patients without malignancy, lower 68Ga-FAPI-04 uptake was noted in postmenopausal women than in reproductive and perimenopausal patients. The invasive operation or hysteromyoma may increase 68Ga-FAPI-04 uptake.
68Ga-FAPI-04 PET might be a promising method in cervical cancers. However, physiological uptake may limit its diagnostic value in uterine body malignancy. It should be noticed that the metastatic lesion in the uterus may show relative lower uptake of 68Ga-FAPI-04 compared with the rest of the uterus. Age, fibroids, and uterine volume may influence 68Ga-FAPI-04 uptake in the uterus. More patients with various uterine diseases could be involved to provide more differential diagnostic information.