Bone metastasis (BM) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the second most common site of metastasis after lung. Bone metastases are associated with worse prognosis in DTC. In this study, we examined risk factors for overall survival in patients with BM and for the first time explore the pattern of genomic alterations in DTC BM.
A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant, institutional review board–approved retrospective evaluation of the medical record was performed for all patients treated at a single institution for thyroid cancer over a 16-year period. Seventy-four patients met inclusion criteria. Multiple prognostic factors including age, sex, genes, radioactive iodine, and radiation or kinase inhibitor therapies were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Treatment with external beam radiation was found to significantly increase survival (P = 0.03). The 5-year survival rate was 59% and median survival was 92 months. Patients who developed bone metastasis earlier tend to live longer (P = 0.06). The presence of TERT and BRAF mutations did not significantly worsen the prognosis (P = 0.10).
Patients with DTC can benefit from early treatment with external beam radiation therapy, especially those who develop bone metastasis within 3 years of primary TC diagnosis. Kinase inhibitor treatment tended to prolong survival but not in a statistically significant manner. Sex, age, and TERT or BRAF genetic mutations did not significantly affect the prognosis.
From the *Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
†Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute—Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
‡Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
§Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
∥Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
¶Molecular Pharmacology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute
**Center for Targeted Radioimmunotherapy and Theranostics, Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
††Department of Radiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY.
Received for publication October 26, 2018; revision accepted March 30, 2019.
Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: This study was supported by R01 CA201250-01A1 “124I-NaI PET: Building block for precision medicine in metastatic thyroid cancer” Grant (JRO, RKG, SML) as well as by the Center for Targeted Radioimmunotherapy and Diagnosis and the Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy. This research was also funded in part through the NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA008748. None declared to all authors.
Correspondence to: Joseph R. Osborne, MD, PhD, Chief of Nuclear Medicine Department of Radiology New York—Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center 520 E 70th Street, Starr-2, New York, NY 10021. E-mail: email@example.com.
Online date: June 14, 2019