Concurrent Resistance Training and Flying 200-Meter Time Trial Program for a Masters Track Cyclist : Strength & Conditioning Journal

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Concurrent Resistance Training and Flying 200-Meter Time Trial Program for a Masters Track Cyclist

Del Vecchio, Luke MSc; Villegas, Jerome; Borges, Nattai MSc; Reaburn, Peter

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Strength and Conditioning Journal 38(3):p 1-10, June 2016. | DOI: 10.1519/SSC.0000000000000230



Masters athletes are typically older than 35 years of age and systematically train for, and compete in, organized forms of sport specifically designed for older adults (34). Over recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of older athletes continuing to train and compete at high-performance levels within both individual sports (6,24) and multisport events (19) designed for masters athletes. For example, the first World Masters Games (WMG) in Toronto, Canada had 8,305 competitors, whereas the 2013 WMG in Turin, Italy had 15,394 competitors (44). Participation in masters track cycling has also increased in recent years, according to Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). The 2011 masters track cycling world championships attracted over 400 entries from 26 countries, whereas the 2015 world championship event is expected to attract approximately 500 masters track cyclists, from more than 30 countries (41). Taken together, these data suggest the sport of track cycling is becoming increasingly popular among masters athletes.


Track cycling is a generic term for events that take place indoors and outdoors on banked hard track surfaces, ranging in circumferences of 333 m or less (10). Track cycling can be categorized into either sprint (<1,000 m) or endurance (>1,000 m) events, and principal events can range from 200-m flying sprints to the 50-km points race (10). At the recent 2015 UCI masters world championship event, track cyclists competed in events, including the flying 200-m sprint, scratch race, team pursuit, and points race. The flying 200 m is a time trial that commences from a moving start and is a qualifying event for sprint races or other competitions such as the omnium. Track length determines how many laps cyclists will take to build up speed before crossing the start line. Tactically, the build-up laps aim to accumulate velocity; however, accumulating too much velocity before the start can exhaust the legs. Contrastingly, if not enough velocity is accumulated, more energy is required during the event to reach maximum velocity during the event. In younger elite male track cyclists, flying 200-m times range between 9.3 and 10.3 seconds (10). In contrast, UCI 2015 track records show, male masters track cyclists aged 40–60 years flying 200-m times are slower, and range between 10.5 and 11.85 seconds.


The flying 200-m event is a maximal effort sprint event, the primary energy sources used consist of the phosphagen and anaerobic glycolytic energy systems (10). The energy system contribution of the flying 200-m time trial in younger cyclists has been estimated at 40% phosphagen, 55% lactic, and 5% aerobic (21). Therefore, large contributions from both anaerobic energy systems are necessary to produce the high-power outputs required for success. For example, during a world cup flying 200-m qualification event, peak and average power outputs for younger cyclists were reported to have ranged between 1,020 and 752 watts, whereas speed and pedaling cadence peaked at 63.5 km/h and 150 revolutions per minute, respectively (10). The effect of age on the physiological demands of the flying 200-m sprint is an important consideration when planning a strength and conditioning program for a masters track cyclist. Masters track cyclists face a decline in anaerobic performance, as a result of age-related biochemical changes such as changes in enzyme activity and decreased lactate production (35). Declining anaerobic performance highlights the need for track cyclists to undertake additional resistance training (RT), as it has been previously shown (12,36) that concurrent sprint and RT programs slow the decline in anaerobic performance in masters athletes.

Although a direct link between track cycling performance and anthropometric characteristics has not been established, one investigation reported among a team of younger, elite track cyclists, sprint cyclists were significantly heavier, stronger, and possessed larger chest, arm, thigh, and calf girths than endurance cyclists (29). These data suggest sprint cyclists require greater lean muscle mass than endurance athletes, as performance is dependent on high-power outputs and pedaling cadences powered by large thigh and calf muscles. Although no research to date, has investigated the anthropometric characteristics of masters sprint cyclists, strength and conditioning coaches can extrapolate these data from younger cyclists (29), to aid the development of an RT program for a masters track cyclist.


Strength and speed-based sporting performance declines with age (2), and between the ages of 35–70 years, there is a linear decline in sprint running performance (5) and weightlifting performance (2). Similar declines in performance also occur in sprint cycling performance with age (27). For example, UCI 2015 track records (42) demonstrate flying 200-m sprint times decline by approximately 5.8% per decade from 30 years to 59 years of age in male, masters track cyclists. In addition, Ampratzis et al. (3) compared the decline in sprinting power between masters cyclists and masters sprint runners. The researchers reported from ages 40–65 years, sprint cycling power declined by 25.3% per decade, similarly, sprint running power declined by 25.4%. The physiological basis of declining sprint performance with age is related to decreases in muscle mass (11), type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area (1), impaired cross-bridge kinetics (33), and neural activation (22,11). For example, Martin et al. (27) reported maximal sprint cycling power declined by 7.5% per decade in males aged 8–70 years; however, when scaled to lean thigh volume, this decline was reduced to 5% per decade. Researchers (22) have also shown that masters sprint runners experience an age-related decrease in neural activation during explosive force production. Taken together, these data suggest that declining sprint performance with age is associated with morphological and neuromuscular changes.


Specific RT programming for masters athletes involved in sprint training and competition is scarce. Reaburn et al. (36) reported significant improvements in 100-m sprint running performance, quadriceps, and hamstring peak torque and thigh girth in a group of masters sprint runners on completing an eight-week RT program. In addition, Cristea et al. (12) reported significant improvements in 60 m sprint performance, 1 repetition maximum (RM) squat strength, and squat jump peak power in a group of sprint-trained masters track athletes after completing a 20-week track sprinting and RT program. Thus, this limited research suggests that RT increases muscle mass, strength, power, and sprint performance in masters track runners. However, no research to date has investigated the effects of RT in masters track cyclists.

Previous research in masters runners supports the rationale for including an RT program for masters track cyclists to attenuate age-related losses in muscle mass (12), bone density (MacGregor C, Reaburn P, and Korhonen M. Training modalities of masters cyclists: An Australian study. Paper Presented at: European College of Sport Science 19th Annual Congress, July 2–6, 2014; Amsterdam, Holland), strength, and explosive power (22). Furthermore, track cycling events such as the flying 200 m involve a maximal effort sprint where increased leg strength can improve acceleration and maximum speed (7). Taking these factors into consideration, it seems a logical decision to incorporate an RT program into a masters track cyclist's existing training regime. Mixed-methods RT programs simultaneously train the 3 dimensions of muscle characteristics: hypertrophy, maximal force production, and maximal power output (30). Moreover, mixed-methods RT programs have been shown to effectively increase: muscle mass, bone density, muscular strength, and explosive force production, in healthy older adults, masters sprint runners, and masters endurance cyclists (13,30). This information was also presented in a pilot study by the authors at the 25th Annual ANXBMS Conference (MacGregor C, Del Vecchio L, Meekin J, Korhonen MT, and Reaburn PA. Pilot study examining the effect of 12 weeks of resistance and sprint cycle training on bone mineral content in veteran endurance cyclists).


The following concurrent RT and track cycling (TC) program has been devised for a club-level competitive, masters track cyclist (male, aged 50 years of age), who is transitioning from the competitive road season to the competitive track season, which begins in 12 weeks. The primary performance goal of this athlete is to improve his flying 200-m time. Typically, the athlete trains with a squad at a local velodrome but has no individualized training program in place. The first component in the development of the program is the goal setting session. The masters athlete's perceived strengths, weaknesses, realistic long and short-term goals, and training history should be discussed and recorded. The strength and conditioning coach should consider some important differences between younger and older athletes. These differences include (44):

  • Preexisting health conditions and their impact on regular training and competition.
  • A modified work-life balance as many masters athletes are at the peak of their careers at the time of competition and may have difficulties attending or completing training sessions due to work and family commitments.
  • A need to balance preferences for social motives/fellowship and competitive achievement.
  • Masters athletes bring several years of life and training experiences to the program, and generally like to have their views respected in the goal setting process.

The next stage in the development of the program is to liaise with both the athlete and a medical practitioner, regarding medical history, injuries, and suitability to undergo vigorous training and competition. Major health organizations recommend that masters-level athletes undergo medical pre-screening assessment of possible cardiovascular complications before commencing training and sports participation to reduce the risk of coronary events (26,28). Such screening should include a symptom-limited exercise test that approximates the cardiovascular, metabolic, and mechanical demands of the intended training and sport (43). In addition, masters athletes should also undergo a thorough, orthopedic assessment to evaluate the impact of any age-related joint degenerative conditions. Finally, the strength and conditioning coach should perform a movement-based screen to evaluate any movement restrictions and limitations that may impact exercise selections. Simple screens that assess fundamental motor skills required for successful free-weight exercise execution, easily adapted from the physical competency screening test battery (39), including squatting, lunging, hip hinging, push-ups, and prone pull-ups are recommended. Recent research (MacGregor C, Reaburn P, and Korhonen M. Training modalities of masters cyclists: An Australian study. Paper Presented at: European College of Sport Science 19th Annual Congress, July 2–6, 2014; Amsterdam, Holland) has shown that masters cyclists are poor users of RT in conjunction with their cycling specific training. Therefore, strength and conditioning coaches should be aware that masters cyclists may present with poor movement competencies and limited RT experience.


The proposed weekly training scheduled (Table 1) planned for the masters track cyclist follows his cycling club's squad training days. In this case, track sessions are held on Sunday mornings (K-1 session: this session has a focus on stationary sprint starts, typically 1/4 to 1/2 lap, emphasizing strength development) and Wednesday evenings (fly session: this session focuses on high cadence development through the use of flying sprint starts). The masters cyclists will perform his personalized training session with the assistance of the club coach before the squad training session. RT sessions will be performed two times per week, on nonconsecutive days, and specifically placed after track training sessions to avoid any excessive fatigue being carried into track cycling training. In addition, recovery rides and a regeneration session are placed after RT sessions to aid recovery and to maintain endurance levels.

Table 1:
Weekly training schedule


The aim of the flying 200-m track program is to increase acceleration and maximum speed abilities (Table 2). During the general preparation and specific preparation phase, gear loading (the increase of gear size) increases every 4 weeks instead of weekly, to allow for the slower rate of adaptation, commonly observed in masters athletes (16). This facilitates strength and power development. In the precompetition phase, the focus is on speed development with a weekly decrease of gearing load to improve speed cadence and overall track cycling performance and testing time. Selected strategies to achieve increased maximum speed and acceleration capabilities, included “over gear training,” meaning, training with a gear that is larger than the athlete's typical race gear (14). Progressive gearing overload methods have been applied to the program to gradually and systematically increase the stress or demand placed on a physiological system or organ to avoid the risk of chronic fatigue or injury (16). To ensure each sprint repetition maintains maximal velocity and power; a cluster set method will be applied to the TC program (18). Cluster sets have rest between repetitions that are contained with a set, also known as interrepetition rest training method (23). Furthermore, the TC program will also incorporate an ascending progressive gear overload method. Examples of ascending progressive gearing overload set structures on Wednesday K-1 training session and Sunday fly session can be seen by the increasing gearing load between each cluster set. Seated sprints are combined with standing sprints on Tuesday's session (K-1, 9 standing starts, seated effort cluster set). Seated acceleration techniques are also an important component of the program. The approach, combining work on technique and strength, is built into the weekly track training program including a progressive gearing overload as the strength develops and progresses.

Table 2:
Exercise selections and progressions


The following suggested RT program addresses several of the age-related factors affecting sprint performance in masters athletes and includes hypertrophy training to offset age-related decreases in muscle mass, heavy strength training to reduce the loss of fast twitch muscle fibers and motor units, as well as ballistic power exercises and plyometrics to maximize rapid force generation. In this hypothetical situation, we are assuming the masters track cyclists have a minimal RT age, and thus, the exercise selection is focused on basic strength building exercises (Table 3) to limit the chance of injury. Free-weight motor skill development will be incorporated into the warm-up to develop lifting competencies for later programming stages.

Table 3-a:
Flying 200-m track cycling program
Table 3-b:
Flying 200-m track cycling program

This present program is adapted from Cristea et al. (11) and suitably modified to meet the needs of masters track cyclists. The general preparation phase emphasizes low-intensity high-volume hypertrophy exercises to prepare the masters track cyclist for more intensive training in the following phases. In the specific and precompetition phases, maximal strength and ballistic power exercises are undertaken and alternated within a week to allow recovery from different types of training stress. The progression in training intensity across the later stages of the training program is aimed at inducing an overload stimulus and to peak maximal strength and power by the end of the training period. Training loads are determined from 3 to 5RM testing results of each exercise, performed every 4 weeks to monitor progress and adjust training loads accordingly.

Exercise selection should focus on the primary muscle groups and joint actions that power the pedal stroke. In the power phase or downstroke, the hip, knee, and ankle joints extend simultaneously (38), whereas in the recovery phase or upstroke, a combination of knee flexion and hip flexion helps bring the pedal back to the top (38). Throughout this motion, a rigid trunk position and a strong grip on the handle bars from the arms and chest enable proper force transfer between the upper and lower body (37). Standing positions are also adopted during the flying 200-m event, and research indicates that while maintaining a standing position, there is increased gluteus maximus activation to stabilize the pelvis as it is no longer supported by the saddle (25). Therefore, exercise selections should target the hip flexors (Figure 1), hip extensors, knee extensors, and ankle joint plantar flexors (Figure 2). Additionally, plyometric and ballistic exercises specific for track cycling are incorporated as part of the power training component (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 2, These exercises are progressed over the training period from low-intensity double leg hops and jumps to single leg alternating lunge jumps and box hops (4,9).

Figure 1:
Dumbbell hip flexor.
Figure 2:
Single leg, leg press.


To reduce the potential for overtraining and to optimize training adaptation, a 3:1 summated microcycle periodization strategy (Table 2) will be incorporated into both TC and RT programs (32). The RT program will use three weeks of increasing intensity (%1RM) followed by an unloading week (Tables 4 and 5). In contrast, the TC program will keep the intensity (gear resistance) the same, but greatly reduce the volume by 40–60% (e.g., Tuesday K-1 day having 3 × 1 single cluster set instead of 3 × 3 and by a single 200-m fly test effort on the Sunday session instead of the fly Sunday session). Periodization is especially important for master athletes, who unlike younger athletes, require increased time for recovery, after intense exercise (8,15,17). To monitor weekly training loads and to ensure excessive fatigue is prevented, the session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) method can be used to evaluate the masters athletes' tolerance to training, by calculating and analyzing training loads over time (16).

Table 4:
Twelve-week resistance training program
Table 5:
Summated microcycles


The program is evaluated when the athlete is monitored by the strength and conditioning coach each session. Tracking anthropometric and performance changes is critical to ensure athlete progression, particularly the masters athlete, who is vulnerable to age-related morphological and neuromuscular changes. Anthropometric assessments need to track changes in muscle mass, body fat, and if possible bone density, depending on the access of a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to provide accurate detailed information on bone density, muscle mass, and body fat percentage. Other low cost field tests can also be used, including:

  • Girth measurements
  • Skinfold measurements.

Although 1RM testing is considered safe for older populations, including masters athletes (28), we suggest strength and conditioning coaches use either a 3 or 5RM test as most masters athletes are unlikely to have undergone 1RM testing before. In addition, most masters athletes are unlikely to have undergone power assessments such as countermovement or squat jump testing, nor ballistic power assessments such as leg press throws. Thus, familiarization sessions will be required to improve the reliability of performance testing sessions (31). Recommended performance tests, again depending on access, may include more sophisticated laboratory measures, including forceplates, isokinetic dynamometer–derived force, and power profiles to lower cost. Options including:

  • Bilateral and unilateral leg press 3RM
  • Chest press/bench row 3RM
  • Leg press throw power/velocity—accelerometer based
  • Squat jump and countermovement jump—contact mat, accelerometer based
  • 10-second peak power—stationary bike.


Despite the limited research supporting the use of mixed-methods RT for masters sprint runners and sprint cyclists, improvements in flying 200-m track cycling performance can be acquired by the inclusion of a carefully constructed TC and mixed-methods RT program. Age-related morphological and neuromuscular changes present significant challenges for the masters track cyclist. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of these factors when designing a strength and conditioning program for a masters track cyclist, and current evidence suggests the inclusion of a concurrent RT and flying 200-m time trial program can be beneficial to the flying 200-m performance of a masters track cyclist.


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      masters track cyclist; masters athlete; flying 200-meter time trial; resistance training

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