Contemporary mixed martial arts (MMA) originated from No Holds Barred competitions in Brazil, which derives from the Portuguese translation “vale-tudo” (literally, “anything goes”) (29,37). MMA has existed for decades in Brazil and other countries (13,29), and is increasing in popularity, while combining different fighting styles (martial arts) (1,2,6,13). Combatants wearing minimal protective gear can use punches, kicks, elbows and knee strikes, stomps, chokes, joint locks, throws, and more to obtain a victory by knock-out, technical knock-out, or submission (16). Arguably, the most important occurrence has been the creation of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), which, along with the interest of executives, has required fighters to become more prepared in their training as well as physically conditioned and well-rounded in different disciplines for these events (32). Thus, the UFC was the major commercialization of a sport that has been around for thousands of years. The physiological demand of MMA as a sport is tremendous, potentially taxing all energy systems (13).
Adequate preparation is necessary for any athlete during the various phases of training and competition. This is especially true given the overall training intensity that is required of an MMA fighter (8). Consequently, a warm-up routine before a training session is generally accepted and is a widely used practice before performing other forms of exercise (15,31,34). With an effective warm-up routine, an athlete can improve the initial state of physical and mental readiness necessary for muscular performance (31). Thus, a successful warm-up routine can improve subsequent performance, reduce muscle soreness, and aid in the prevention of injuries (5,15,30,31,39). Muscles, tendons, and ligaments become more compliant as the temperature of the tissue is increased, possibly decreasing the risk of injury (31). Other benefits include enhanced aerobic power and lower levels of lactate, increased speed of muscle contraction and transmission of neuronal impulses, greater movement economy, facilitated oxygen delivery, and increased cardiac output and blood flow (8,24,27,31,43). Scientific evidence has suggested that an active warm-up appears to be more beneficial than a passive warm-up (5). Hence, a warm-up should involve major muscles used in the training or competition, be similar to the activity to be engaged, progress from lower to higher intensity, and be at least 10 minutes in duration (14), depending on environmental conditions. It should gradually increase in intensity sufficiently enough to increase muscle and core temperature without causing fatigue or depleting energy stores (31). In contrast, although an increase in body temperature may be advantageous, an excessive rise in temperature may impair body function processes and consequently lead to negative effects on overall performance (10,11,25). Thus, more attention must be given to the methods and types of warm-up.
A warm-up can be classified as general or specific (31). A general warm-up refers to the type of warm-up in which movements and energy substrates that are predominant in the sport are not explicitly addressed. With this type of warm-up, heart rate, blood flow, muscle temperature, respiratory rate, and sweating are increased (5,9). For example, a general warm-up involving running increases internal body and muscle temperature and prepares the cardiovascular system for performance. A warm-up is normally considered adequate when the athlete begins to sweat.
A specific warm-up refers to a routine that is more specific to a particular activity, in which movements are performed that mimic the training of the intended activity, in this case, combat sports. Dynamic and static stretches have traditionally served as a warm-up for the muscles directly involved in the sport (5,9). A warm-up routine that is appropriately timed and performed is essential for the athlete to benefit the most from training and competing. For the purpose of practical application, a sequence of exercises is demonstrated (Figures 1, 2 and Table 1) and can be placed into the warm-up routine of an MMA athlete. This combination of stimuli lasts approximately 10–15 minutes, with only 20–30 seconds of recovery between exercises.
During a fight, it is evident that certain movements require a rather large range of motion and mobility. A decreased range of motion in the basic movements necessary in a fight can impair striking motions while standing or on the ground. In addition, a lack of mobility can make it more difficult to escape from possible submission attempts. Hence, the level of flexibility in this case is directly associated with range of motion, and if it is low, it can negatively affect performance. Furthermore, the importance of flexibility is increased in combat sports, which require movements to be performed in the extreme ends of the range of motion, such as in jiu-jitsu, muay thai, and MMA (17,42). For example, head kicks and arm-bar submission escapes require high levels of hip and shoulder flexibility, respectively (Figure 3). Specifically, high levels of flexibility of the hip and knee joint are necessary for a high kick, and high levels of flexibility (and strength) of the shoulder joint are necessary when trying to rotate the arm around the shoulder joint when attempting to escape from an arm-bar submission. Hence, MMA is a combat sport that requires mobility and an enhanced range of motion in specific movements, particularly in the hip and shoulder joints. Stretching exercises should aim to mimic and replicate these movements as much as possible. Although an extensive discussion on stretching is beyond the scope of this article, a distinction between dynamic and static stretching is crucial because studies have shown that acute static stretching may induce performance decrements (7). For example, pre-activity static stretching has been shown to reduce strength, power, speed, balance, and vertical jump performance (7). In addition, the theory of stretching for injury risk prevention is questionable (18,19). Furthermore, static stretching does not elevate body temperature and hence cannot be considered a warm-up. Therefore, it is suggested that static stretching exercises should be performed after training or in an entirely separate training session.
Flexibility is used and required for various movements in activities of daily living, and in some sports it becomes more important than others. Thus, maintaining an optimal level of flexibility may increase the performance of athletes in combat sports. Flexibility can be defined as the maximal passive physiological amplitude for a given joint motion (3,4). Flexibility is specific and may be different across gender, age, level of physical activity, and anatomical and musculotendinous structures (5,35). Flexibility is also specific to each joint and movement, and, for example, one athlete can present different levels of range of motion for flexion and extension in the same joint (20,38). Maintaining an adequate level of flexibility is both crucial and necessary to enhance performance in athletes. The stretching exercises (listed in Tables 2, 3 and Figures 4, 5) for training flexibility can be classified as active, passive, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (5). As an example of this training application for MMA, dynamic stretching is recommended for various reasons. First, the athlete reproduces similar movements during the warm-up that he/she will use in training or in a fight, including specific rehearsal of movement before exercise (22,23,41). In addition, research suggests an advantageous increase in body temperature with dynamic stretching (23,44) when compared with static stretching, an increase in neuromuscular activity (21), stimulation of the nervous system (28,44), and an association with postactivation potentiation (21,26,36,41,44), leading to performance enhancements.
A training session consists of a warm-up, the training itself, and a cool-down (14,33). After training, a low-intensity cool-down session should be performed to facilitate a gradual transition from an exercise level to a resting state (33). A cool-down period is essential after a training session and should last approximately 5–10 minutes (33,34). This cool-down period is characterized as a way to transition the body to a state of relaxation after training and if done properly can optimize the process of recovery (12). In fact, a cool-down protocol can effectively recover the heart rate and blood pressure to pre-exercise resting levels leading to an antiarrhythmic effect and protecting the individual from a cardiac event or hypotensive episode (40). For example, the cool-down during recovery can help facilitate venous return and subsequently prevent pooling of venous blood (33,40). Thus, intensity should be gradually decreased followed by stretching (14). In addition, the cool-down may minimize muscle soreness and stiffness after training or competition (14).
Table 4 and Figure 6 presents examples of 4 movements that can be used during the cool-down period after an MMA training session with the purpose of enhancing relaxation of the muscles and reducing the time needed for recovery for subsequent training sessions.
MMA is composed of various combat sports that require intense physical training. A comprehensive strength and conditioning program for an MMA athlete should include appropriately planned warm-up, cool-down, and stretching components. Warm-up sessions may be both general and specific but should be designed to focus on active or dynamic movements. Stretching programs are crucial for sport-specific movements but should be part of postexercise cool down routines or used as a separate focused effort to enhance flexibility. Cool-down strategies should be developed to enhance the return to basal metabolic levels and aid in postexercise recovery.
The authors would like to thank former Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) middleweight title contender Thales Leites for the time taken to pose for the pictures in this article. They would also like to thank Mega Sport Center Gym and Huston Huffman Center for making their facilities available for the pictures to be taken.
1. Amtmann JA. Self-reported training methods of mixed martial artists at a regional reality fighting
event. J Strength Cond Res
18: 194–196, 2004.
2. Amtmann JA, Amtmann KA, and Spath WK. Lactate and rate of perceived exertion responses of athletes training for and competing in a mixed martial arts
event. J Strength Cond Res
22: 645–647, 2008.
3. Araújo CG. Flexitest: An Innovative Flexibility Assessment Method
. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2003. p. 205.
4. Araújo CG. Flexibility assessment: Normative values for flexitest from 5 to 91 years of age. Arq Bras Cardiol
90: 257–263, 2008.
5. Baechle TR and Earle RW. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning
. Champaign, IL: National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2008. pp. 296–306.
6. Baker JF, Devitt BM, and Moran R. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture secondary to a 'heel hook': A dangerous martial arts technique. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
18: 115–116, 2010.
7. Behm DG and Chaouachi A. A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. Eur J Appl Physiol
111: 2633–2651, 2011.
8. Bergh U and Ekblom B. Physical performance and peak aerobic power at different body temperatures. J Appl Physiol
46: 885–889, 1979.
9. Bishop D. Warm up II: Performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Med
33: 483–498, 2003.
10. Bishop D, Bonetti D, and Dawson B. The effect of three different warm-up intensities on kayak ergometer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc
33: 1026–1032, 2001.
11. Bishop D and Maxwell NS. Effects of active warm up on thermoregulation and intermittent-sprint performance in hot conditions. J Sci Med Sport
12: 196–204, 2009.
12. Bishop PA, Jones E, and Woods AK. Recovery from training: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res
22: 1015–1024, 2008.
13. Bounty PL, Campbell BI, Galvan E, Cooke M, and Antonio J. Strength and conditioning considerations for mixed martial arts
. Strength Cond J
33: 56–67, 2011.
14. Brooks GA, Fahey TD, White TP, and Baldwin KM. Exercise physiology: Human bioenergetics and its applications
(3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000. p. 468.
15. Brunner-Ziegler S, Strasser B, and Haber P. Comparison of metabolic and biomechanic responses to active vs. passive warm-up procedures before physical exercise. J Strength Cond Res
25: 909–914, 2011.
16. Buse G. No holds barred sport fighting: A 10 year review of mixed martial arts
competition. Br J Sports Med
40: 169–172, 2006.
17. Buse GJ and Santana JC. Conditioning strategies for competitive kickboxing. Strength Cond J
30: 42–48, 2008.
18. Costa PB, Ryan ED, Herda TJ, Defreitas JM, Beck TW, and Cramer JT. Effects of static stretching on the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and electromyographic amplitude in men. J Sports Med Phys Fitness
49: 401–409, 2009.
19. Costa PB, Ryan ED, Herda TJ, Walter AA, Defreitas JR, Stout JR, and Cramer JT. Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque and the hamstrings-to-quadriceps conventional and functional ratios. Scand J Med Sci Sports
, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01348.x. Epub ahead of print on June 15, 2011
20. Dickinson RV. The specificity of flexibility. Res Quart
39: 792–794, 1968.
21. Faigenbaum AD, Bellucci M, Bernieri A, Bakker B, and Hoorens K. Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on fitness performance in children. J Strength Cond Res
19: 376–381, 2005.
22. Fletcher IM and Anness R. The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on fifty-meter sprint performance in track-and-field athletes. J Strength Cond Res
21: 784–787, 2007.
23. Fletcher IM and Jones B. The effect of different warm-up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res
18: 885–888, 2004.
24. Gray SC, Devito G, and Nimmo MA. Effect of active warm-up on metabolism prior to and during intense dynamic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc
34: 2091–2096, 2002.
25. Gregson WA, Batterham A, Drust B, and Cable MT. The influence of pre-warming on the physiological responses to prolonged intermittent exercise. J Sports Sci
23: 455–464, 2005.
26. Hough PA, Ross EZ, and Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. J Strength Cond Res
23: 507–512, 2009.
27. Ingjer F and Stromme SB. Effects of active, passive or no warm-up on the physiological response to heavy exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol
40: 273–282, 1979.
28. Jaggers JR, Swank AM, Frost KL, and Lee CD. The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power. J Strength Cond Res
22: 1844–1849, 2008.
29. Kordi R and Maffulli N. Combat Sports Medicine
. London, UK: Springer-Verlag, 2009.
30. Malliou P, Rokka S, Beneka A, Mavridis G, and Godolias G. Reducing risk of injury due to warm up and cool down in dance aerobic instructors. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil
20: 29–35, 2007.
31. Mcardle WD, Katch FI, and Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance
(6th ed). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
32. Paiva L and Del vecchio FB. Pronto pra Guerra: Preparação Física Específica para Luta e Superação. OMP, ed. Manaus, Brazil, 2009. p. 62.
33. Powers SK and Howley ET. Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance
(6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007. p. 444.
34. Prentice WE. Arnheim's Principles of Athletic Training: A Competency-Based Approach
. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
35. Rubini EC, Costa AL, and Gomes PS. The effects of stretching on strength performance. Sports Med
37: 213–224, 2007.
36. Sale DG. Postactivation potentiation: Role in human performance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev
30: 138–143, 2002.
37. Sánchez garcía R and Malcolm D. Decivilizing, civilizing or informalizing? The international development of mixed martial arts
. Int Rev Sociol Sport
45: 39, 2010.
38. Soucie JM, Wang C, Forsyth A, Funk S, Denny M, Roach KE, and Boone D. Range of motion measurements: Reference values and a database for comparison studies. Haemophilia
17: 500–507, 2010.
39. Swanson JR. A functional approach to warm-up and flexibility. Strength Cond J
28: 30–36, 2006.
40. Takahashi T and Miyamoto Y. Influence of light physical activity on cardiac responses during recovery from exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol
77: 305–311, 1998.
41. Torres EM, Kraemer WJ, Vingren JL, Volek JS, Hatfield DL, Spiering BA, Ho JY, Fragala MS, Thomas GA, Anderson JM, Hakkinen K, and Maresh CM. Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance. J Strength Cond Res
22: 1279–1285, 2008.
42. Turner AN. Strength and conditioning for Muay Thai athletes. Strength Cond J
31: 78–92, 2009.
43. Wenos DL and Konin JG. Controlled warm-up intensity enhances hip range of motion. J Strength Cond Res
18: 529–533, 2004.
44. Yamaguchi T and Ishii K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. J Strength Cond Res
19: 677–683, 2005.