Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Preseason Strength and Conditioning for Collegiate Tennis Players

Wakeham, Tim “Red”, MS1; Jacobs, Rich, MS2

Strength & Conditioning Journal: August 2009 - Volume 31 - Issue 4 - p 86-93
doi: 10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181afef9c
Article
Free

TENNIS HAS BEEN CHARACTERIZED AS A FAST-PACED GAME THAT REQUIRES PRECISE MOVEMENT COORDINATION, AGILITY, EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, AND STRATEGIC SKILL MASTERY. THESE OUTCOMES CAN BE ACHIEVED BY ADHERING TO AN ANNUAL PLAN CONSISTING OF VARIOUS PHASES. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS ARTICLE ARE TO BRIEFLY REVIEW OFF-SEASON STRENGTH TRAINING; TO PROVIDE AN IN-DEPTH EXAMINATION OF PRESEASON STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING; AND TO REVIEW PRESEASON GENERAL AND SPORT-SPECIFIC CONDITIONING.

1Athletics Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; and 2Athletics Department, Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio

Tim “Red” Wakehamis the director of strength and conditioning for Olympic Sports at Michigan State University.

Figure

Figure

Rich Jacobsis an assistant strength and conditioning coach at Xavier University.

Figure

Figure

Back to Top | Article Outline

OFF-SEASON

After the collegiate tennis season comes to an end, tennis players begin a periodized strength and power program that includes the following: a 2-week active rest period is instituted immediately after the season. An active rest period assists in the players' mental and physical rejuvenation and recovery (13). During this time, athletes stay fit using alternative conditioning modes to tennis-specific strength and conditioning. These lower intensity activities are prescribed to allow healing of tissue microtraumas and to provide emotional recovery from the high-intensity in-season training (17). Example active rest activities include biking, swimming, elliptical training, general calisthenics, and yoga.

Back to Top | Article Outline

WEIGHT TRAINING

Specific weight training and conditioning for tennis begins after the initial active rest period. A nonlinear periodized approach is used for the strength and power training. The terms nonlinear and undulating are being used to describe a systematic altering; rotation; and coupling of exercises, set and repetition (rep) schemes. The nonlinear plan accomplishes planned variation, optimal work, recovery, and growth (24). Furthermore, the undulating periodization structure allows the freedom to make use of relatively light training intensities on days preceding difficult in-season practices or competitions.

The nonlinear plan varies in intensity and volume in an undulating fashion to avoid neural fatigue and maximize strength gain (5). Specifically, target reps and sets are changed every workout of the training week to create training variation and bring about alterations in volume and intensity. Over time, the total work volume is decreased at a slow rate, whereas intensity is gradually increased.

Core lifts are primarily multi-joint exercises, whereas auxiliary lifts are generally single-joint exercises. Core lifts include the front lunge, squat, step-up, bench press, rows, shoulder press, and pull-downs. Auxiliary lifts include leg curls, gluteal/hamstring bridges, calf presses, shoulder raises, and various torso stability and mobility exercises. Hamstring exercises are specifically emphasized with the female athletes to increase hamstring strength and knee stability. Set and rep schemes for auxiliary and core lifts are varied. However, rep targets for some of the auxiliary lifts are not decreased as much as the core lifts as a result of observed declines in technique because of heavy workloads.

Tennis players begin weight training by selecting resistances that allow them to achieve the assigned number of reps with good technique during the performance of each set. When the assigned rep targets are accomplished, the athletes increase the resistances used the next time they perform that particular day's prescription. Because individuals vary in their ability to recover and progress, there are occasional days when a player is instructed to lower their workout volume and/or intensities to assist with recovery. This structure provides progressive overload using mostly multi-joint, multi-set, multi-mode (equipment) exercises, and also directing the athletes through multiple cardinal planes to optimize muscle strengthening (3,27).

Back to Top | Article Outline

TRAINING CYCLES

ENDURANCE WEIGHT TRAINING PHASE

Collegiate tennis players begin strength training by performing a progressively overloaded 6-week endurance phase. See Table 1 to understand the annual training calendar. Table 1 shows how each training phase transitions and builds from one goal and phase to the next in relation to the competitive season.

Table 1

Table 1

The purposes of the endurance phase are to reintroduce athletes to the demands of strength training, optimally prepare them for successful performances in later phases, and provide planned variety. Accordingly, the intensity is somewhat low, and the volume is relatively high. Set and rep schemes vary on training days between 1 × 20, 3 × 8, and 2 × 12. A 1-week active rest period is assigned after the 6-week endurance phase.

Back to Top | Article Outline

HYPERTROPHY WEIGHT TRAINING PHASE

A 7-week systematically overloaded hypertrophy phase is then introduced. The hypertrophy phase is used to optimally affect strength development via larger muscle mass having greater potential for strength gain (46). Training volume is kept relatively high, whereas intensity is moderate to produce increases in muscle size. Some variety is also introduced in the form of a small number of new exercises. Variety in exercise selection may result in optimal muscle strengthening (39). Set and rep schemes vary each day between 1 × 15, 3 × 6, and 2 × 10. A 1-week active rest period is given after completion of the hypertrophy phase.

Back to Top | Article Outline

BASIC STRENGTH WEIGHT TRAINING PHASE

A 7-week basic strength phase is implemented after the hypertrophy segment. Intensity is increased, and the total number of exercises is decreased to stimulate maximum motor unit recruitment and muscular strength (1). Daily set and rep schemes vary between 1 × 13 repetition maximum (RM), 3 × 4 RM, and 3 × 9 RM. Specific weight loads are assigned to achieve RM at specified rep targets. RM means that each set is terminated only after an inability to perform another rep within technical parameters has occurred. RMs are used with strength sets to ensure maximum or near maximum efforts in order to elicit maximal motor unit activation (12).

The last week of the 7-week basic strength phase is used to provide variation in the form of 2 power training days. Loads on some core (power exercises) are varied between 30 and 60%, and players are instructed to intend to maximally accelerate all training loads (whether using their body or a light or heavy weight) (35). A key stimulus for enhancing the rate of force development is maximum voluntary effort (intent) to develop force as fast as possible (53). A 2-week active rest period is given to optimize mental and physical recovery. The “preseason” phase follows the strength cycle.

Back to Top | Article Outline

PRESEASON

POWER PHASE

The major goal of the preseason phase is to increase sport-specific muscular power. Some of the specifics of this preseason phase follow. Players strength train 3 d/wk to positively influence sport-specific power (43) (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays). Intensity is increased and total volume is decreased from the basic strength phase. Decreased volume is achieved via a reduction in reps and total exercises performed. Set and rep schemes are varied on each of the training days between 1 × 12 RM, 3 × 3 RM, and 3 × 8 RM.

Core and auxiliary lifts used during this phase include tri-planar lunges, single-leg squats with a mini-band, dumbbell step-ups, cable backpedals with a mini-band, cable cariocas, single-leg deadlifts, cable push/pulls, shoulder presses, pull-downs, and various torso stability and mobility exercises. Mini-bands worn slightly above knee level and around the legs are used on some lower-body movements to try and positively influence gluteal activation. An example sport-specific strength training prescription is given in Table 2. In addition, see Figures 1-4 for example exercises.

Table 2

Table 2

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 4

On Tuesdays and Thursdays, sport-specific plyometric and ballistic exercises are assigned to optimally influence power output (29,50). Players are instructed to demonstrate maximum intent and effort (>90% of maximum voluntary effort) to develop force as fast as possible using sport movements demonstrating optimal movement efficiency and precision (7,29,42). Full recovery is provided between the maximal efforts of each drill to try and ensure precise movement efficiency and speed of execution. Example sport-specific power prescriptions are given in Table 3. In addition, see Figures 5 and 6 for power exercises.

Table 3

Table 3

Figure 5

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 6

A post-workout stretch or foam roll routine is performed after each strength, conditioning, and power routine is concluded to warm down physically and psychologically while enhancing also flexibility (44). It is important to note that these modalities are not used to enhance between training session recovery. A majority of current research suggests that blood lactate levels return to baseline well before the athletes' next training session without the use of these modalities (6). In addition, there is little scientific evidence showing any improved recovery benefits from post-workout stretching and foam rolling (6). The stretch and foam roll portion of the workout is used as a psychologically pleasant warm down and to enhance team camaraderie.

Back to Top | Article Outline

IN-SEASON WEIGHT TRAINING PHASE

The goal of the in-season phase is to maintain strength, power, and conditioning while avoiding overtraining (24). The training cycle of in-season is similar to that of the preseason. The differences are a gradual decrease in volume because of the amount of time athletes spend on the tennis court and occasional fluctuations in intensity to provide training variety. The decrease in volume is achieved through a reduction of training days and total number of exercises performed.

Back to Top | Article Outline

CONDITIONING

The conditioning of tennis players is a multifaceted process. Optimal tennis conditioning for the rigors of the collegiate tennis season consists of a combination of aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscular endurance, speed, agility, quickness, and flexibility (8,11,40).

Back to Top | Article Outline

DYNAMIC WARM-UP

A dynamic warm-up is used to increase blood flow, flexibility of muscles and tendons, and core body temperature and to enhance muscular range of motion (21,32,45). The warm-up is performed for approximately 7-10 minutes. This period and the resultant temperature increases of muscle tissue and core body temperature may decrease injury rates during the subsequent activity (2,45). The dynamic warm-up uses ground-based movements that mimic the patterns that will be used throughout the training session (23,34). Selected movements include forward and backward skips and jogs, shuffles with 180° turns, skipping and jogging with 360° spins, forward and backward step-overs (prances), forward and backward lateral bounds, and “C” skips.

Back to Top | Article Outline

PRESEASON ANAEROBIC GENERAL CONDITIONING

Tennis players perform progressively more challenging ground- and treadmill-based anaerobic sport-specific energy system development exercise on Mondays and Fridays during the preseason. Example conditioning workouts are given in Table 4. Progressive overload of players' sport-specific energy systems is achieved using specific rest to work ratios along with sport (position specific) movement patterns to optimize transference to sport performance (20,42). Conditioning sessions incorporate a dynamic warm-up to enhance neuromuscular stimulation (22,34). Static stretches are not used before exercise or during warm-ups because of the possibility of decreased neural activation (8,19,26).

Table 4

Table 4

Back to Top | Article Outline

PRESEASON SPORT-SPECIFIC CONDITIONING

Ground-based speed and agility programs are developed based on the specific energy systems used during tennis match play (20). To this end, interval training is prescribed. Interval training allows for large volumes of maximal efforts for repeated trials (20). Conditioning workouts start with a 1:4 work to rest ratio to specifically challenge the anaerobic energy system. Rest times are systematically decreased to elicit a conditioning response (4). A cumulative workout distance of between 1.5 and 2 miles is prescribed to achieve optimal improvement (2,4,20).

The ability to move fast laterally, have optimal reaction time, and first-step quickness may improve performance of the tennis athlete (35,38). Sport-specific starting positions are used as a method to positively influence sport-specific movement transfer. Examples first steps used include the split, crossover, shuffle, and drop steps.

Based on the principle of specificity, most drills are performed on the tennis court to encourage a positive transfer of learning (4,31). However, occasional conditioning sessions are performed on turf or field grass to avoid overtraining due to high work volumes on the tennis courts. Sport-specific movement patterns are prescribed to maximize sport-specific conditioning and refine sport-specific mechanics (54). Example sport-specific movement patterns that are performed on the tennis court using the lines as guides include base-base, base-net, base-far service, base-near service, and net-base backpedal sprints. Sprints are performed for distances of 5-20 yd, depending on the drill.

A combination of general linear speed and general multi-directional agility training is also done. For example, the “M” drill, box drill, and pro-agility drill are popular patterns because they allow for forward, lateral, and backward movement encompassing the entire court. Tennis ball drops and visual change of direction drills are also added to increase reaction time using a visual stimulus. Short sprint races using a combination of visual, auditory, or sport-specific starts are also used to improve first-step quickness (18).

Many players enjoy positive rivalry, so the competitive environment inspires maximum efforts (15). Specific contingent feedback is given to each player so that immediate corrections to technique are made. Specific technical instructions include demonstrating efficient lower-body triple extension, purposeful elbow drive, a straight back, relaxed shoulders, and keeping the head and eyes up (18).

There are many different ways to train for explosion while conditioning. For example, Myer and Ford (36) have shown that a combination of treadmill- and ground-based training may be an effective way to increase short distance speed strength qualities. Accordingly, players implement incline running protocols to emphasize quadriceps and gluteal activation and enhance speed strength qualities (47). This quadriceps and gluteal strengthening has been shown to be most important for very short distance/duration sprints (52).

It is important to note that although incline treadmill-based sprints can be effective for increasing short distance/duration sprint speed, there are limitations to this type of training. Treadmill running allows for only linear training and the use of sport-specific starts is not an option.

Sport-specific programs are designed based on the energy systems used in tennis (20). Athletes are given the freedom to choose the tennis-specific programs they would like to perform. After they choose a program, they progress for at least 3 weeks by increasing speed by 0.2 mph or increasing the incline grade by 0.5%. This progression will occur every time the program can be completed successfully. Treadmill training is in addition to the ground-based training, occurring once per week. Example conditioning workouts to be completed indoor (treadmill) and outdoor (court) are given in Table 4.

Back to Top | Article Outline

WARM-DOWN

Post-workouts are followed by a warm-down consisting of a light jog and static stretching lasting 30 seconds to 1 minute per muscle group (2). Stretching after activity has been shown to decrease muscle stiffness and soreness, remove unwanted waste products, and increase flexibility (22,44). Examples include single-leg hamstring stretch, laying piriformis/glute, side-lying quadriceps, and butterfly groin.

Back to Top | Article Outline

RECOVERY

Training recovery is important to become a better athlete (10). Recovery can be attributed to many factors such as nutrition and time off. Although each factor serves a purpose, a combination of these components may be best for enhancing recovery (33,37).

Back to Top | Article Outline

NUTRITION

Post-workout nutrition is an important aid in recovery. To promote optimal recovery, carbohydrates in a ratio of 1.2 g·kg−1·h−1 should be consumed within 30 minutes after the workout (41). Depending on the intensity of training, carbohydrates should continue to be consumed every 30 minutes for the next 2-5 hours (9,49). A combination of protein and carbohydrates has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis after workouts (41,48). Karp et al. (25) suggest chocolate milk as a suitable source for post-workout recovery because it has similar characteristics of many carbohydrate replacement drinks.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REST

Taking time off is important because it allows the body to recover physically and mentally (4,28). The most current studies indicate that 48-72 hours of recovery should be sufficient to allow the peripheral and central nervous system to return to baseline performance levels (16,33,51). Active rest such as low-intensity cycling can help clear lactic acid out of the muscle tissue, resulting in a faster recovery (14,30).

Back to Top | Article Outline

CONCLUSIONS

As collegiate tennis players continue to compete year round and at high levels, it is more important than ever to develop an annual plan. The plan should consist of various segments each building off of the former. All phases should progressively emphasize the important physiological and skillful aspects of tennis preparation. Variation, recovery, and growth opportunities based on the competitive and academic calendar should be scheduled into the program. The plan should also be easily amendable for any situational changes that may be needed along with individualization based on the specific rate-limiting factors of each player. More specifically, the preseason cycle should use the strength and conditioning from the prior phases as a spring board to begin and optimally enhance the execution of power and endurance tennis skills.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Allerheilegen B, Edgerton V, Hayman B, Kuc J, Lambert M, Macdougall JD, O'Bryant H, Pedemonte J, Sale D, Tesch P, Vermeil A, and Westcott W. Determining factors of strength part 1. NSCA J. 1: 9-22, 1993.
2. American College Of Sports Medicine. Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (7th ed). Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
3. Atha J. Strengthening muscle. In: Miller DI, Ed. Exercise Sport Science Reviews. Vol 9. Franklin Institute Press, 1981. pp. 1.
4. Baechle, TR and Earle, RW, eds. Essentials of Strength and Conditioning (2nd ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2000. pp. 142-144, 486-488, 493-506.
5. Baker D, Wilson G, and Carlyon R. Periodization: The effect on strength manipulating volume and intensity, J Strength Cond Res. 8: 235-242, 1994.
6. Barnett. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes. Sports Med 36: 781-796, 2006.
7. Behm DG. Velocity Specificity in Resistance Training is Determined by Intended rather than the Actual Contraction Velocity [master's thesis]. MacMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 1990.
8. Behm DG, Button DC, and Butt JC. Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Can J Appl Physiol 26: 261-272, 2001.
9. Betts JA, Duffy K, Gunner F, and Williams C. Recovery of endurance running capacity following ingestion of carbohydrate plus protein [supplement abstract 2187]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37: 37, 2005.
10. Bishop PA, Jones E, and Woods KA. Recovery from training: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1015-1024, 2008.
11. Bloomfield J, Polman R, O'Donoghue P, and Mcnaughton L. Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports. J Strength Cond Res 21: 1093-1100, 2007.
12. Carpinelli RN. The size principle and a critical analysis of the unsubstantiated heavier-is-better recommendation for resistance training. J Exerc Sci Fitness 2(6): 67-86, 2008.
13. Charniga A, Stone M, Pedemonte J, O'bryant H, Kraemer WJ, Gambetta V, Newton H, Palmieri G, and Pfaff D. Roundtable: Periodization, part 1. NSCA J 8(5): 12-22, 1986.
14. Corder KP, Potteiger JA, Nau KL, Figoni SF, and Hershberger SL. Effects of active and passive recovery conditions on blood lactate, rating of perceived exertion, and performance during resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 14: 151-156, 2000.
15. Cox RH. Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications (5th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2002 pp. 76-83.
16. Fabiato A and Fabiato F. Effect of pH on the myofilaments and the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skinned cells from cardiac and skeletal muscles. J Physiol (London) 276: 233-255, 1978.
17. Fleck SJ and Kraemer WJ. Designing Resistance Training Programs (2nd ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1997. p. 103.
18. Foran B, ed. High-Performance Sports Conditioning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2001. pp. 145-148, 161-162, 167-172.
19. Fowlers JR, Sale DG, and Macdougall JD. Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human plantar flexors. J Appl Physiol 89: 1179-1188, 2000.
20. Fox E, Bowers R, and Foss M. The Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport (5th ed), Dubuque, IA: Brown & Benchmark, 1989. pp. 302-316, 344-348.
21. Hakkinen K and Komi PV. Effect of explosive types of strength training on electromyographic and force production characteristics of leg extensor muscles during concentric and various stretch-shortening cycle exercises. Scand J Sport Sci 7: 65-76, 1985.
22. Herbert RD and Gabriel M. Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: Systematic review. Br Med J 325: 122-127, 2002.
23. Herman, SL and Smith DT. Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1286-1297, 2008.
24. Kaneko M, Fuchimoto T, Toji H, and Suei K. Training effect of different loads on the force-velocity relationship and mechanical power output in human muscle. Scand J Sport Sci 2(5): 52-55, 1983.
25. Karp JR, Johnston JD, Tecklenburg S, Mickleborough T, Fly A, and Stager JM. The efficacy of chocolate milk as a recovery aid [supplement abstract 850]. Med Sci Sports Exercise 36(5): 411-415, 2004.
26. Kokkonen J, Nelson AG, and Cornwell A. Acute muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance. Res Q Exerc Sport 69: 411-415, 1998.
27. Kraemer WJ and Fleck SJ. Optimizing the size of muscles. Strength Health Rep 9(1): 1-3, 1998.
28. Kraemer WJ, Piorkowski PA, Bush JA, Gomez AL, Loebel CC, Volek JS, Newton RU, Mazzetti SA, Etzweiler SW, Putukian M, and Sebastianelli WJ. The effects of NCAA division 1 intercollegiate competitive tennis match play on recovery of physical performance in women. J Strength Cond Res 14: 265-272, 2000.
29. Lesumes G. Muscle strength and power changes during maximal isokinetic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 10: 266-269, 1978.
30. Lindinger MI, Mckelvie RS, and Heigenhauser GJF. K1 and lac2 distribution in humans during and after high-intensity exercise: Role in muscle fatigue attenuation. J Appl Physiol 78: 765-777, 1995.
31. Loy SF, Hoffmann JJ, and Holland GJ. Benefits and practical use of cross training in sports. Sports Med 19: 1-8, 1995.
32. Magnusson SP, Aagard P, Simonsen E, and Bojsenmoller F. A biomechanical evaluation of cyclical and static stretch in human skeletal muscle. Int J Sports Med 19: 310-316, 1998.
33. Mclester JR, Bishop P, Smith J, Wyers L, Dale B, Kozusko J, Richardson M, Nevett M, and Lomax R. A series of studies-A practical protocol for testing muscular endurance recovery. J Strength Cond Res 17: 259-273, 2003.
34. McMillian DJ, Moore JH, Hatler BS, and Taylor DC. Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: The effect on power and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res 20: 492-499, 2006.
35. Muller E, Benko U, Raschner C, and Schwameder H. Specific fitness training and testing in competitive sports. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: 216-220, 2000.
36. Myer G and Ford K. Predictors of sprint start speed: The effects of resistive ground-based vs. inclined treadmill training. J Strength Cond Res 21: 831-836, 2007.
37. Nachticall D, Nielsen P, Fischer R, Engelhardt R, and Gabbe EE. Iron deficiency in distance runners. A reinvestigation using Fe-labeling and non-invasive liver iron quantification. Int J Sports Med 17: 473-479, 1996.
38. Parsons LS and Jones MT. Development of speed, agility, and quickness for tennis athletes. J Strength Cond Res 20: 14-19, 1998.
39. Poliquin C. Five steps to increase the effectiveness of your strength training program. NSCA J 10(3): 34-39, 1988.
40. Polman RCJ, Walsh D, Bloomfield J, and Nesti M. Effective conditioning of female soccer players. J Sports Sci 22: 191-203, 2004.
41. Rasmussen RB and Phillips SM. Contractile and nutritional regulation of human muscle growth. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31: 127-131, 2003.
42. Rushall BS and Pyke FS. Training for Sports and Fitness. South Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan, 1990.
43. Schmidtbleicher D and Haralambie G. Changes in contractile properties of muscle after strength training in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 46: 221-228, 1981.
44. Shrier I. When and whom to stretch. Phys Sportsmed 3(33): 22-26, 2005.
45. Smith CA. The warm up procedure: To stretch or not to stretch. A brief review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 19: 12-17, 1994.
46. Stone M, O'Bryant H, and Garhammer J. A hypothetical model for strength training. J Sports Med 21: 342-351, 1981.
47. Swanson SC and Caldwell GE. An integrated biomechanical analysis of high speed incline and level treadmill running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: 1146-1155, 2000.
48. Tipton KD and Wolfe RR. Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci 22: 65-79, 2004.
49. Van Loon L, Saris W, Kruijshoop M, and Wagenmakers A. Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: Carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures. Am J Clin Nutr 72: 106-111, 2000.
50. Wilson GJ, Newton RU, Murphy AJ, and Humphries BJ. The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1: 1279-1286, 1993.
51. Winnick JJ, Davis JM, Welsh RS, Carmichael MD, Murphy EA, and Blackmon JA. Carbohydrate feedings during team sport exercise preserve physical and CNS function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37: 306-315, 2005.
52. Young W, Benton D, Duthie G, and Pryor J. Resistance training for short sprints and maximum-speed sprints. Strength Cond J 23(2): 7-13, 2001.
53. Young WB and Bilby GE. The effect of voluntary effort to influence speed of contraction on strength, muscular power, and hypertrophy development. J Strength Cond Res 7: 172-178, 1993.
54. Young WB, Mcdowell MH, and Scarlett BJ. Specificity of sprint and agility training methods. J Strength Cond Res 15: 315-319, 2001.
Table

Table

Keywords:

tennis; preseason; periodization; power; conditioning; sport-specific; strength

© 2009 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association