PART I OF THIS REVIEW DESCRIBES THE MOST IMPORTANT NEUROMUSCULAR SPORTS INJURY RISK FACTORS IN YOUTH ATHLETES: MUSCLE FATIGUE, ALTERED TIMING AND MAGNITUDE OF MUSCLE ACTIVATION, STRENGTH DEFICITS, PREDOMINANCE OF FRONTAL PLANE CONTROL STRATEGIES, NEUROMUSCULAR IMBALANCES BETWEEN LIMBS, INADEQUATE MUSCLE STIFFNESS, DEFICITS IN POSTURAL STABILITY, ALTERED PROPRIOCEPTION, AND FEED-FORWARD CONTROL. THE SECOND PART OF THIS REVIEW PROVIDES A FLEXIBLE APPROACH TO INTEGRATIVE NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING WITH THE GOAL TO IMPROVE INJURY RESILIENCE AND TO ENHANCE SPORT AND MOTOR SKILL PERFORMANCE.
1School of Health and Sport Sciences (EUSES) Universitat de Girona, Salt, Catalonia, Spain;
2Blanquerna Faculty of Psychology, Education Sciences and Sport (FPCEE), Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain;
3Segle XXI Female Basketball Team, Catalan Federation of Basketball, Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain;
4Department of Athletic Training, Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; and Department of Kinesiology, Athletic Training/Sports Medicine Program, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania;
5Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio;
6Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio;
7Department of Psychology, Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio;
8Youth Physical Development Unit, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales;
9Sports Health and Performance Institute, Ohio State University, Sports Medicine, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio; and
10Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts
Address correspondence to Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: We acknowledge funding support from National Institutes of Health/NIAMS Grant R21AR065068-01A1 and U01AR067997.
Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaegheis an Associate Professor at the School of Health and Sport Sciences (EUSES, University of Girona, Spain) and a strength and conditioning coach of elite female youth basketball players (Segle XXI team, Catalan Federation of Basketball).
Daniel Romero-Rodriguezis an Associate Professor at the School of Health and Sport Sciences (EUSES, University of Girona, Spain) and the Sporting and Technical Director of ReSport Clinic (Barcelona, Spain) and Novaelite Sport Center (Barcelona, Spain).
Alicia M. Montalvois an Assistant Professor of Athletic Training at Florida International University.
Adam W. Kieferis an Assistant Professor in the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and holds appointments in the Department of Pediatrics in the College of Medicine at the University of Cincinnati, and also at the Center for Cognition, Action and Perception in the Department of Psychology at the University of Cincinnati.
Rhodri S. Lloydis a Senior Lecturer in Strength and Conditioning at Cardiff Metropolitan University.
Gregory D. Myeris Director of Research and the Human Performance Laboratory for the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and holds primary academic appointments in the Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery within the College of Medicine at University of Cincinnati.