THIS REVIEW SUMMARIZES THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH OF THE EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY, AND DOSAGES OF THE LESSER-KNOWN, BUT COMMONLY ADDED, SUPPORTIVE INGREDIENTS IN MULTI-INGREDIENT PERFORMANCE SUPPLEMENTS (MIPS). PRIMARY INGREDIENTS THAT ARE WELL KNOWN AND PREVIOUSLY REVIEWED (I.E., CAFFEINE, CREATINE, BETA-ALANINE) ARE EXCLUDED FROM THIS REVIEW. THE IMPROVEMENTS REPORTED ARE COMMONLY MEDIATED BY SECONDARY MECHANISMS SUCH AS IMPROVED BLOOD FLOW, PROTEIN BALANCE, METABOLISM, AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS. OVERWHELMING EVIDENCE EXISTS SUGGESTING THAT THE SUPPORTIVE INGREDIENTS IN MIPS ARE SAFE TO USE; HOWEVER, THE AMOUNT PRESENT IN MOST MIPS IS LIKELY TOO SMALL TO ELICIT STRENGTH, POWER, OR RECOVERY RESPONSES.
1Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida; and
2Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors report no conflicts of interest and no source of funding.
Brittany R. Allmanis a Research and Teaching Assistant at Florida State University.
Vince C. Kreipkeis a Research and Teaching Assistant at Florida State University.
Michael J. Ormsbeeis an Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences and Interim Director of the Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine at Florida State University.