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The Back Squat

Targeted Training Techniques to Correct Functional Deficits and Technical Factors That Limit Performance

Kushner, Adam M. BS, CSCS1; Brent, Jensen L. BS, CSCS2; Schoenfeld, Brad J. PhD, CSCS, FNSCA3; Hugentobler, Jason PT, DPT, SCS, CSCS1,4; Lloyd, Rhodri S. PhD, CSCS*D5; Vermeil, Al MS, RSCC*E6,7; Chu, Donald A. PhD, PT, AT Ret., CSCS, FNSCA7,8,9; Harbin, Jason MS10; McGill, Stuart M. PhD11; Myer, Gregory D. PhD, CSCS*D1,12,13,14

Strength & Conditioning Journal: April 2015 - Volume 37 - Issue 2 - p 13–60
doi: 10.1519/SSC.0000000000000130
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ABSTRACT THE BACK SQUAT IS A WELL-RESEARCHED AND WIDELY USED EXERCISE TO ENHANCE FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT COMPETENCY THAT CREATES A FOUNDATION FOR OPTIMAL MECHANICAL STRATEGIES DURING A BROAD RANGE OF ACTIVITIES. THE PRIMARY COMMENTARY INTRODUCED THE BACK SQUAT ASSESSMENT (BSA): A CRITERION-BASED ASSESSMENT OF THE BACK SQUAT THAT DELINEATES 30 POTENTIALLY OBSERVABLE FUNCTIONAL DEFICITS. THIS FOLLOW-UP COMMENTARY PROVIDES A TARGETED SYSTEM OF TRAINING CUES AND EXERCISES TO SUPPLEMENT THE BSA TO GUIDE CORRECTIVE INTERVENTION. WE PROPOSE A CRITERION-DRIVEN APPROACH TO CORRECTIVE EXERCISE THAT CAN SUPPORT PRACTITIONERS IN THEIR GOAL TO HELP INDIVIDUALS ACHIEVE MOVEMENT COMPETENCY IN THE BACK SQUAT.

1Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio;

2The Academy of Sports Performance, Cincinnati, Ohio;

3Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, Bronx, New York;

4Division of Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio;

5Cardiff School of Sport, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom;

6Titleist Performance Institute, Oceanside, California;

7Athercare Fitness and Rehabilitation Clinic, Alameda, California;

8Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, Utah;

9Ohlone College, Newark, California;

10BEAT Personal Training, Cincinnati, Ohio;

11Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada;

12Department of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio;

13Sports Health & Performance Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; and

14The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts

Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge funding support from National Institutes of Health.

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Adam M. Kushneris a Clinical Research Coordinator in the Human Performance Laboratory for the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

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Jensen L. Brentis the owner and director of training at The Academy of Sports Performance in Cincinnati, Ohio and head strength and conditioning coach for the Cincinnati Kelts Rugby Football Club.

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Brad J. Schoenfeldis an assistant professor in exercise science at CUNY Lehman College and director of their Human Performance Laboratory.

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Jason A. Hugentobleris a sports medicine physical therapist at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

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Rhodri S. Lloydis a senior lecturer in Strength and Conditioning at Cardiff Metropolitan University.

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Al Vermeilis President of Vermeil Sports and Fitness, Inc. specializing in athletic assessment, conditioning and training.

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Donald A. Chuis the director of the Athercare Fitness and Rehabilitation Clinic in Pleasanton, CA, and a professor and adjunct faculty at Ohlone College.

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Jason Harbinis the head trainer at Beat Personal Training.

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Stuart M. McGillis a professor of Spine Biomechanics at the University of Waterloo.

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Gregory D. Myeris director of Research of the Human Performance Laboratory for the Division of Sports Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and holds primary academic appointments in the Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery within the College of Medicine at University of Cincinnati.

© 2015 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association