MAGNESIUM (Mg2+) IS ONE OF THE MOST ABUNDANT POSITIVELY CHARGED IONS (CATION) WITHIN THE HUMAN BODY AND HAS BEEN LINKED WITH MUSCULAR, NEURAL, ENZYME, AND CELLULAR PROCESSES. HOWEVER, Mg2+ HAS RECEIVED RELATIVELY LITTLE ACKNOWLEDGMENT COMPARED WITH OTHER CATION PARTICLES SUCH AS CALCIUM OR POTASSIUM. THIS REVIEW AIMS TO INCREASE THE AWARENESS OF COACHES AND ATHLETES REGARDING Mg2+'S PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS. THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS CATION, IN TERMS OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND ENERGY REGULATION, INCLUDING OTHER RELATED PROCESSES WILL BE EXPLORED. CONSEQUENCES OF Mg2+ DEFICIENCY IN ATHLETIC AND UNTRAINED POPULATIONS WILL ALSO BE DISCUSSED, INCLUDING STRATEGIES TO OPTIMIZE Mg2+ LEVELS.
1School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, University of Chichester, England, United Kingdom; 2School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, Australia; and 3Institute of Sport and Recreation Research New Zealand, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
Philip Carvil is received his masters in Sport and Exercise Physiology from the University of Chichester.
John Cronin is a professor in Strength and Conditioning at AUT University and holds an adjunct professorial position at Edith Cowan University.