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Between the Beginning and End of a Repetition: How Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Influence the Intensity of a Biceps Curl

Reiser Raoul F. II PhD CSCS; Mackey, Daniel T. MS; Overman, Jeff W.
Strength & Conditioning Journal: October 2007
Article: PDF Only


The traditional resistance training exercise begins and ends with zero velocity of the person and any external resistance (barbell, dumbbell, etc.). However, several factors exist that will influence the magnitude and direction of the forces required to move the external resistance during the course of the exercise. These forces, along with those necessary to move associated body segments, will then influence the joint torque required and the associated muscle forces creating the torque. The goal of this article is to examine these factors through discussion of the biceps curl.

Raoul F. Reiser, II, is an assistant professor of Clinical Biomechanics in the Health & Exercise Science Department at Colorado State University.

Daniel T. Mackey is a volunteer assistant track and field coach at CSU and is a certified coach by USA Track & Field.

Jeff W. Overman is a Measurement-While-Drilling Field Service Engineer with Baker Hughes INTEQ in Casper, Wyoming.

© 2007 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association