Although GDF5 protein is involved in bone and tissue growth in youth and adults (4), this did not identify a direct link with GDF5 and players' maturity offset. The GDF5 rs143383 A allele carriers has been previously associated with decreased stature and sitting height (55,65) in Euro-American population and British population (55). Our study did not find an association between stature, sitting height or maturation offset (derived from stature and sitting height), and rs143383, which might be explained by our relatively low sample or the ongoing maturation process itself. Moreover, GDF5 rs143383 has not been associated with pubertal height growth in a previous genome-wide association study (9). Therefore, it is possible that GDF5 gene expression does not differ at different stages of maturity estimated by anthropometrics, such that it was showed for other polymorphisms such as disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1-like) or mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) (9,59).
Limitations of this study include the relatively small sample size and potential effects of other environmental (e.g., dietary) or genetic factors; therefore, the results of this study cannot be generalized to other populations. Validation in other cohorts and further studies are necessary to address the detailed role of the chosen polymorphisms of COL5A1, GDF5, and PPARA genes within the complex phenotype of strength and power performance. Our polymorphism selection has been performed in relation to muscle function and performance phenotypes, but not to specific polymorphisms previously related to growth and maturation, which we suggest for future studies performed on adolescents. The maturation status has been found to have effect on functional movement including SL (50) and the muscle strength and power performance (17). Our phenotype results (without considering anthropometry in Table 4) showed no difference between pre-PHV and post-PHV young male (Table 7), which is in accordance with previous studies where, e.g., LS and RSI did not significantly differ between pre-PHV and post-PHV in males (31,54). This might be explained by low range of our PHV groups (13–15 year) or by complex training effects, where plyometric training might be more effective in pre-PHV than post-PHV participants and where other training responses might be similar in both maturity groups (32). Although numbers of training sessions slightly differ between sports and the sexes, all participants were in a structured training program (with a minimum of 6 training sessions per week) designed to promote progressive musculoskeletal adaptation. Moreover, all participants had been in systematic training for a number of years (minimum 6 years), which might mean that any potential confounding variables did not influence our genotype results.
This study has been supported by the GACR grant No. 16‐13750S and by grant IGA_PU_LF 2018_015/2019_009.
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