Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Original Research

Effects of Three Different Stretching Techniques on Vertical Jumping Performance

Kirmizigil, Berkiye1; Ozcaldiran, Bahtiyar2; Colakoglu3, Muzaffer

Author Information
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: May 2014 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 1263-1271
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000268
  • Free



Sport performances are affected by the strength or muscular power output. Therefore, athletes and coaches have to select optimal warm-up before sport activities to improve muscular performance (40,41). Generally, preactivity warm-up contains a component of low-intensity activity followed by a stretching component.

Many coaches suggest static stretching (SS) before unit training or competitions, despite having little knowledge on the exact effects of this type of stretching (34). This is based on the notion that stretching improves performance, prevents injuries, and increases flexibility. According to recent studies, scientific evidence is yet to prove that SS prevents injuries or improves performance (34). In fact, many authors report that SS can have negative effects on athletic performance such as a decrease in maximal force production (13,15,27,32), jump height (6,24,42), and sprint speed (18,25) and also lead to an increase in reaction time and impairing balance (5). Research suggests that the effects of stretching on performance depends on the type of stretching conducted (2,3,19,20). It has recently been found that for athletes performing activities, which include basic biomotor abilities (such as strength, speed, and endurance), functional dynamic stretching (DS) is more successful than SS during warm up (4). Theoretically, DS and SS have the same positive effects on flexibility, although DS may improve explosive power performance (23,24,31).

Other various findings have shown that the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) technique, which includes isometric contraction, can improve range of motion (ROM) by creating autogenic inhibition (26,35). However, effects of PNF on muscle strength are contradictory. Marek et al. (27) found that after PNF stretching, quadriceps muscle performance decreased during isokinetic exercises. Conversely, another study that examined effects of PNF on hamstring torque found that increasing hamstring flexibility was an effective method to improve hamstring strength both concentrically and eccentrically (38).

Literature in the area of stretching techniques is plentiful, however, once again, there is little consensus on which stretching technique (or combination of techniques) is the most effective (33). Studies show that SS decreases (6,32), whereas DS increases muscle power (12,17,39). The first hypotheses of this study was to determine if vertical jump (VJ) height would increase after BS treatment, which is a type of DS. However, it has not been examined whether combining BS with PNF techniques enhances muscle power and flexibility. Recent studies show that BS improves VJ height; however, the effects of PNF on strength is not conclusive (27,38). One way of improving strength might therefore be combining PNF and BS, which is our second hypotheses to determine if BS followed after PNF would increase VJ height. There is little evidence showing a negative effect of SS after PNF techniques on muscle power and flexibility. However, because of the negative effects of SS and PNF on strength, a decrease in VJ height is expected. Third hypotheses of the study was to conclude that VJ height obtained as a result of SS followed after PNF will be lower than BS followed after PNF.

The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate 3 different flexibility (BS, PNF + BS, and PNF + SS) techniques on VJ performance and to determine the appropriate stretching method in warm-up routine to assist in the planning of training techniques.


Experimental Approach to the Problem

A cross-sectional, within-group study design was used to evaluate the acute effects of stretching on explosive force production during warm-up. To evaluate the effects of 3 different stretching protocols on muscular performance, all the subjects underwent a familiarization session. Range of motion of each subject was evaluated using the sit and reach test. After a minimum of 48 hours after the evaluation of subject's flexibility, test protocols were applied. Each subject attended the laboratory on 1 occasion at the same time of the day (10 AM–12 PM, within 2 hours) during off-season to prevent subjects from being affected by factors of readiness level of central nervous system, heat, humidity, etc. In test protocols, all subjects performed aerobic warm-up (AW) followed by BS then PNF + BS, and finally PNF + SS treatments, respectively on the same day. Participants were tested by countermovement jump (CMJ) after AW and every stretching. The protocol designed to test the effects of the second treatment on the first and the third treatment on the second. Therefore, balance randomization has not been done.


One hundred male athletes (age = 22.8 ± 3.4 years; height = 1.79 ± 0.1 m; weight = 76.9 ± 11.1 kg; BMI = 23.7 ± 2.5 kg·m−2) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were healthy, physically active and participated in a variety of activities (volleyball, football, handball, etc.). All subjects were sport science and physical education students. The subjects reported having been physically active for approximately 10–15 hours per week. The participants had approximately 10 years of athletic background. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (a) subjects were physically active at least 2 years before the experiment, (b) free from any lower-limp musculoskeletal injuries, (c) did not use alcohol or any tobacco-related substances, and (d) refrained from any unhealthy dietary habits and did not use of performance enhancing drugs. All procedures were approved by the Ege University Ethics Committee, and participants were provided with an informed consent after the study was approved. A full explanation of study design was given to all of the participants before the test. Subjects were instructed to refrain from vigorous physical activity for 48 hours before the testing session. Subjects were also instructed to ingest a light meal and fluids before the experiment (Table 1).

Table 1
Table 1:
Physical characteristics of the subjects (n = 100).


Before the experimental procedures, all the subjects performed a familiarization session at least 48 hours before the testing day. During the familiarization session, subjects completed a 5-minute jogging session on a treadmill and then 3 different stretching techniques (BS, PNF + BS, PNF + SS). In addition to this, subjects were familiarized to the sit and reach test.

Sit and Reach Test

Participants pressed against the testing board while sitting on the mat. Knees were extended, and then the participants were instructed to reach and hold as far as possible along the board, without bouncing.

Countermovement Jump Test

Countermovement jump was performed for measurement of the explosive force and reuse of elastic energy during inversion of eccentric to concentric movement (28). Subjects were asked to stand on both feet on the Newtest (Newtest 2000; Newtest Oy, Oulu, Finland) and lower their body towards the ground by moving into flexion position at the trunk and lower extremity while extending upper extremity. Then subjects were asked to jump as high as possible while extending their legs. The jump was repeated 3 times.


Subjects were required to attend an orientation session in which they were familiarized with the testing procedures. Two days after familiarization, subjects returned for testing. The procedure consisted of 4 stages, these included: AW, ballistic stretching (BS), progressive neuromuscular facilitation along with ballistic stretching (PNF + BS), and progressive neuromuscular facilitation along with static stretching (PNF + SS). In all stretching techniques, lumbar extensor, gluteus maximus, and hamstring muscles were stretched with a single stretching exercise. Each stretching technique was applied for 4 sets bilaterally. All stages were completed in 1 day for each participant. According to the test protocol, subjects completed a 5-minute warm-up on treadmill. Then subjects used 3 stretching techniques in order of BS, PNF + BS, and PNF + SS. After the warm-up and between each treatment, subjects rested for 2 minutes. In CMJ conditions, 3 maximal VJ were performed after warm-up and at each stage, as mentioned above. Each jump was repeated 3 times, with a 1-minute rest between each repetition. The best CMJ was chosen for the evaluation.

Stretching Techniques

In BS technique, each subjects had to bounce once per second for 5 seconds. In PNF + BS technique, slow reversal-hold-relax (SRHR) technique was used as PNF. Slow reversal-hold-relax procedure includes 5-second isotonic contraction of the antagonist muscle, followed by a 5-second isometric contraction of the antagonist, 3 seconds of voluntary relaxation, followed by a 5-second isotonic contraction of agonist muscle followed by 3 seconds of voluntary relaxation. Right after the last relaxation of SRHR, 5 seconds of BS was carried out.

In the PNF + SS treatment, SRHR procedure was used exactly the way it was used in PNF + BS technique. After the PNF technique, SS was carried out with the assistance of the instructor for 30 seconds in the mild uncomfortable stretching position.

Statistical Analyses

After normality was assured by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Q-Q plots were assessed for linearity, data were analyzed using parametric tests. Data were divided into 2 different classifications. One was done according to initial flexibility scores, and then the resulted values were divided within themselves in 3 groups (33.33% percentiles; low flexibility group [F1] [flexibility between 0 and 21 cm, age: 23.06 ± 2.71, BMI: 24.01 ± 2.09, athletic background: 11.03 ± 4.03], moderate flexibility group [F2] [flexibility between 22 and 30 cm, age: 22.63 ± 3.29, BMI: 24.18 ± 2.80, athletic background: 10.06 ± 4.03], and high flexibility group [F3] [flexibility between 31 and 45 cm, age: 22.28 ± 4.05, BMI: 22.89 ± 2.43, athletic background: 9.43 ± 4.04]). Second classification was done according to prejump height (33.33% percentiles; poor prejump performance group [PJ1] [flexibility: 22.45 ± 7.74, age: 22.51 ± 2.34, BMI: 24.36 ± 2.66, athletic background: 10.69 ± 3.98], moderate prejump performance group [PJ2] [flexibility: 25.25 ± 8.01, age: 23.71 ± 3.85, BMI: 23.70 ± 2.49, athletic background: 10.47 ± 4.16], and high prejump performance group [PJ3] [flexibility: 27.8 ± 9.44, age: 22.1 ± 3.62, BMI: 23.1 ± 2.22, athletic background: 9.55 ± 4.08]). Statistical program (SPSS 17.0) was used for statistical analysis. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine an intraclass correlation conducted for CMJ after each of the 3 treatment (BS, PNF + BS, and PNF + SS) in each classification. Bonferroni and LSD post hoc test was applied to assess the difference between the baseline and post-BS, post-PNF + BS, and post-PNS + SS.

The assumption of variance homogeneity related with classified groups was tested by using Levene Test. In the case of variance of homogeneity, ANOVA test was applied followed by post hoc Bonferroni and LSD. When homogeneity of variance was violated, Welch Test was applied and Games-Howell test was used for the post hoc. Since flexibility groups had variance homogeneity, ANOVA test was applied and then, post hoc Bonferroni and LSD was used. Because of a violation of homogeneity for prejump performance groups, Welch Test was applied along with post hoc Games-Howell Test.


For the prejump performance scores, there were significant differences when comparing all flexibility groups (p ≤ 0.005, p = 0.0038). Vertical jump performances of low flexibility group (F1) were lower than high flexibility group (F3). There were no significant differences among VJ performances of all flexibility groups after BS, PNF + BS, and PNF + SS (p > 0.05).

Among VJ performances of all groups classified according to prejump performance, there were significant differences after each intervention (p ≤ 0.05, p = 0.000). Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found in repeated measures of flexibility groups. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation + BS decreased VJ height, whereas BS increased it in F1 group. In F1, F2, and F3 groups, PNF + SS decreased VJ height compared with BS and PNF + BS. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation + SS decreased VJ height compared with PNF + BS in F3 group (p ≤ 0.05).

There was a significant increase in VJ height in the BS condition compared with prejump performance in F2 groups (p ≤ 0.05) but not in F3 groups. There also was a significant reduction in VJ height in the PNF + BS compared with the prejump performance in F3 group (p ≤ 0.05) (Table 2; Figure 1). Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found in repeated measures of all prejump performance groups.

Table 2
Table 2:
Vertical jump scores after countermovement jump (mean ±SD) for flexibility groups.*
Figure 1
Figure 1:
Repeated measures of countermovement jump heights after warm-up, BS, combination of PNF and BS, and combination of PNF and static stretching of flexibility groups.p ≤ 0.05; *intraclass differences; †interclass differences; F1 = low flexibility group; F2 = moderate flexibility group; F3 = high flexibility group; BS = ballistic stretching; PNF = proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation; CMJ = countermovement jump. Green line = F1; red line = F2; blue line = F3.

In the poor prejump group (PJ1), moderate prejump group (PJ2) and high prejump group (PJ3), there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height in the PNF + SS compared with the BS (p ≤ 0.05). In PJ 1 and PJ 2 groups, PNF + BS decreased VJ height significantly compared with BS (p ≤ 0.05). Ballistic stretching increased VJ height when compared with the prejump performance in PJ1 group (p ≤ 0.05). In PJ2 and PJ3 groups, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height in the PNF + SS compared with the prejump performance (Table 3; Figure 2).

Table 3
Table 3:
Vertical jump scores after countermovement jump (mean ±SD) for prejump performance groups.*
Figure 2
Figure 2:
Repeated measures of countermovement jump heights after warm-up, BS, combination of PNF and BS, and combination of PNF and static stretching of pre-jump groups.p ≤ 0.05; *intraclass differences; †interclass differences; PJ1 = poor prejump performance group; PJ2 = moderate prejump performance group; PJ3 = high prejump performance group; BS = ballistic stretching; PNF = proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation; CMJ = countermovement jump. Green line = PJ1; red line = PJ2; blue line = PJ3.

Significant differences were found in repeated measures of the whole group (p ≤ 0.05). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation + SS decreased VJ performance compared with the prejump performance, BS, and PNF + BS. There was also decrease in the VJ performance in PNF + BS compared with the BS. Ballistic stretching increased VJ performance compared with the prejump performance (Table 4; Figure 3).

Table 4
Table 4:
Vertical jump scores after countermovement jump (mean ±SD) for total group.*
Figure 3
Figure 3:
Repeated measures of countermovement jump heights after warm-up, BS, combination of PNF and BS, and combination of PNF and static stretching of entire group.p ≤ 0.05; *intraclass differences; BS = ballistic stretching; PNF = proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation; CMJ = countermovement jump.


This study aimed to determine the appropriate stretching technique used in warm-up period of power-required sport activities. Acute effects of different lower-limp stretching techniques on explosive force production were compared. Vertical jump scores were used as a measure of significance.

Initial flexibility scores proved to be significant in determining whether an individual's flexibility changed the effect that stretching had on VJ scores. However, Unick and et al. found no effect of flexibility on VJ performance (36).

Ballistic stretching improved VJ height significantly in subjects having low and moderate flexibility. Ballistic stretching, by producing more intense action potentials, increased the number of firing motor units as a reaction to abrupt stretching of muscle spindle, which may lead to myotatic reflex for individuals having low flexibility. This positive neurological effect of BS may have increased performance.

Guissard et al. (22) reported that BS caused facilitation of the stretch reflex, which is mediated by the facilitator influences of muscle spindles type I and II receptors on homonymous alpha motor neuron excitability. This study supports our findings. Unick et al. did not find significant differences after BS on VJ performance (36). Likewise, Bradley et al. (8) found that BS has no negative effect of VJ performance. However, Nelson et al. (29) showed that BS decreases maximum strength by 8%. Although different studies present various results, in accordance with our first hypothesis, BS is recommended for athletes with poor flexibility to increase their jump height performance.

After BS, vertical jumping performance was not affected in the high-flexibility group, whereas performance decreased after PNF + BS, which contradicts with our second hypothesis; that shows PNF had a depressing effect on power production in this group.

Previous studies show that PNF is more effective in increasing ROM compared with passive stretching; maximal voluntary contraction before stretching causes more increase in the length of muscle (22). This might be the mechanical reasons for the increase in ROM. This can also be explained by neurological mechanisms such as autogenic and reciprocal inhibition. Rapid decrease in musculotendinous stiffness is observed as a result of inhibition of motor neuron pool after maximal voluntary contraction (21,43). Probable decrease of muscle endurance and strength is also associated with neurological and mechanical factors mentioned above.

In all flexibility groups, the intervention of PNF + SS decreased VJ height compared with the PNF + BS intervention, which shows that SS has an important contribution to the effects of PNF. This supports our third hypothesis. According to the test results, it is not recommended to practice PNF + SS because when this stretching technique was used by the athletes immediately before an explosive athletic movement, their power production decreased.

Decrease in performance after SS is explained by a combination of mechanical and neurological factors (9). Mechanically, SS results in a longer and more compliant muscle-tendon unit (37). Contractile elements must then contract more rapidly and over a greater distance to “pick-up the slack” resulting in a reduced peak torque and a slower rate of force development (18,37). Neurologically, SS seems to decrease motor unit activation (1,7,27,32).

It can be expected that an athlete having high flexibility also has high jumping performance and are affected less by the inhibition created by SS. Flexibility training using SS may increase excitability threshold of golgi tendon organ. As in athletes having high flexibility tendon tension doesn't increase too much even at the end of ROM, it could be expected that strong inverse myotatic reflex is not generated and the following jumping performance will not be affected much. However, the decrease in performance was maximum in high-flexibility group in this study. It could be explained by mechanical factors created by SS in the muscle in condition of increased ROM.

Positive neurological effects of BS seemed to improve the VJ heights of athletes with poor prejumping performance, accompanied by low flexibility. However, increase in performance after BS was not observed after PNF + BS in poor prejumping performance group, showing that PNF negates the positive effects of BS.

Previous studies have shown that PNF stretching significantly decreases acute maximal performances, which supports our results (7,11–13,16). However, some other studies have conflicting results showing that PNF improves or does not affect VJ performance (10,30). In moderate and high prejumping performance group, VJ performance decreased maximally when SS is applied in combination with PNF, which could be related with the negative neurological effects of PNF and SS. Our findings are supported by other studies, which indicate that PNF and SS cause acute decreases in maximal performance (7,11–13,16). However, Manoel and et al. (26) found that SS and PNF do not decrease knee extension power in women. In a similar study, Cramer et al. (14) found out that SS did not result in a performance decrease. When all these are taken into consideration, for athletes with poor jump performance, it would be efficient to use BS in the warm-up period. They can also use PNF + BS or PNF + SS; however, they would not benefit from either of them because they do not affect performance in VJ. But with athletes who have high jumping performance, we do not recommend the usage of PNF + SS because it decreases performance. Although it only increases performance slightly, athletes might also benefit from BS.

In the whole group, BS treatment increased VJ height. However, VJ height decreased in PNF + BS treatment compared with the BS treatment. Vertical jump height decreased also in PNF + SS treatment compared with PNF + BS treatment. Our study therefore shows that BS has positive effects on lower extremity explosive power production, whereas PNF and SS methods affected it negatively. For the conclusion, our study clearly shows that to improve strength, BS can be used during the warm-up period.

Practical Applications

Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that PNF + SS combination must be avoided as part of a pre-event warm-up session. In addition to this, athletes especially who have low flexibility and power-production capacity are advised to incorporate BS in the warm-up period of training and competitions to increase their power-production capacities. However, additional investigation is required to find appropriate stretching methods to improve talents of athlete having high flexibility and power-production capacities.


1. Avela J, Kyrolainen H, Komi PV. Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching. J Appl Physiol (1985) 86: 1283–1291, 1999.
2. Babault N, Kouassi BYL, Desbrosses K. Acute effects of 15 min static or contract-relax stretching modalities on plantar flexors neuromuscular properties. J Sci Med Sport 13: 247–252, 2010.
3. Bacurau RFP, Monteiro GA, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Cabral LF, Aoki MS. Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength. J Strength Cond Res 23: 304–308, 2009.
4. Baechle TR, Earle RW. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008.
5. Behm DG, Bambury A, Cahill F, Power K. Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time and movement time. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 1397–1402, 2004.
6. Behm DG, Bradbury EE, Haynes AT, Hodder JN, Leonard AM, Paddock NR. Flexibility is not Related to Stretch-Induced Deficits in Force or Power. J Sports Sci Med 5: 33–42, 2006.
7. Behm DG, Button DC, Butt JC. Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Can J Appl Physiol 26: 261–272, 2001.
8. Bradley PS, Olsen PD, Portas MD. The effect of static, ballistic and proprioceptif neuromuscular fasilitation stretching on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 21: 223–226, 2007.
9. Carvalho FLP, Carvalho MCGA, Simao R, Gomes TM, Costa PB, Neto LB, Carvalho RLP, Dantas EHM. Acute effect of a warm-up including active, passive and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 26: 2447–2452, 2012.
10. Christensen BK, Nordstrom BJ. The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and dynamic stretching techniques on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1826–1831, 2008.
11. Church BJ, Winggins MS, Moode MF, Crist R. Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 15: 332–336, 2001.
12. Cornwell A, Nelson AG, Hise GD, Sidaway B. The acute effects of passive muscle stretching on vertical jump performance. J Hum Movement Stud 40: 307–324, 2001.
13. Cramer JT, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Miller JM, Coburn JW, Beck TW. Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque in women. J Strength Cond Res 18: 236–241, 2004.
14. Cramer JT, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Weir JP, Beck TW, Coburn JW. An acute bout of static stretching does not affect maximal excentric isokinetic peak torque, the joint angle at peak torque, mean power, electromyography, or mechanomyography. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 37: 130–139, 2007.
15. Cramer JT, Housh TJ, Weir JP, Johnson GO, Coburn JW, Beck TW. The acute effects of static stretching on peak torque, mean power output, electromyography, and mechanomyography. Eur J Appl Physiol 93: 530–539, 2005.
16. Evetovich TK, Nauman NJ, Conley DS, Todd JB. Effect of static stretching of biceps brachii on torque, electromyography and mechanomyography during concentric isokinetic muscle actions. J Strength Cond Res 17: 484–488, 2003.
17. Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Schwerdtman JA, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Hoffman JR. Dynamic warm-up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. J Athl Train 41: 357–363, 2006.
18. Fletcher IM, Jones B. The effect of different warm up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 18: 885–888, 2004.
19. Franco BL, Signorelli GR, Trajano GS, Oliveira CG. Acute effects of different stretching exercises on muscular endurance. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1832–1837, 2008.
20. Gomes TM, Simao R, Marques MC, Costa PB, Novaes JS. Acute effects of two different stretching methods on local muscular endurance performance. J Strength Cond Res 25: 745–752, 2010.
21. Guissard N, Duchateau J. Neural aspects of muscle stretching, exercise and sport sciences Reviews. Am Coll Sports Med 34: 154–158, 2006.
22. Guissard N, Duchateau J, Hainaut K. Muscle stretching and motoneuron excitability. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 58: 47–52, 1988.
23. Holt BW, Lambourne K. The impact of different warm-up protocols on vertical jump performance in male collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 22: 226–229, 2008.
24. Hough PA, Ross EZ, Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. J Strength Cond Res 23: 507–512, 2009.
25. Little T, Williams AG. Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional Soccer Players. J Strength Cond Res 20: 203–207, 2006.
26. Manoel ME, Harris-Love MO, Danoff JV, Miller TA. Acute effects of static, dynamic, and PNF stretching on muscle power in woman. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1523–1534, 2008.
27. Marek MS, Cramer JT, Fincher AL, Massey LL, Dangelmaier SM, Purkayastha S, Fitz KA, Culbertson JY. Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output. J Athletic Train 40: 94–103, 2005.
28. Nelson AG, Guillory IK, Cornwell C, Kokkonen J. Inhibition of maximal voluntary isokinetic torque production following stretching is velocity specific. J Strength Cond Res 15: 241–246, 2001.
29. Nelson AG, Kokkonen J. Acute ballistic muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance. Res Q Exerc Sport 72: 415–419, 2001.
30. Pacheco L, Balius R, Aliste L, Pujol M, Pedret C. The acute effects of different stretching exercises on jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 25: 2991–2998, 2011.
31. Perrier ET, Pavol MJ, Hoffman MA. The acute effects of a warm-up including static or dynamic stretching on countermovement jump height, reaction time and flexibility. J Strength Cond Res 25: 1925–1931, 2011.
32. Power K, Behm D, Cahill F, Carrol M, Young W. An acute bout of static stretching: Effects on force and jumping performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 1389–1396, 2004.
33. Rubini EC, Costa ALL, Gomes PSC. The effects of stretching on strength performance (review). Sports Med 37: 213–224, 2007.
34. Samuel MN, Holcomb WR, Guadagnoli MA, Rubley MD, Wallmann H. Acute effect of static and ballistic stretching on measures of strength and power. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1422–1428, 2008.
35. Sharman MJ, Cresswell AG, Riek S. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Sports Med 35: 929–939, 2006.
36. Unick J, Kieffer HS, Cheesman W, Feeney A. The acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women. J Strength Cond Res 19: 206–212, 2005.
37. Witvrouw E, Mahieu N, Danneels L, McNair P. Stretching and injury prevention. Sports Med 34: 443–449, 2004.
38. Worrell TW, Smith TL, Winegardner J. Effect hamstring stretching on hamstring muscle performance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 20: 154–159, 1994.
39. Yamaguchi T, Ishii K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. J Strength Cond Res 19: 677–683, 2005.
40. Yamaguchi T, Ishii K, Yamanaka M, Yasuda K. Acute effects of static stretching on power output during concentric dynamic constant external resistance leg extension. J Strength Cond Res 20: 804–810, 2006.
41. Yamaguchi T, Ishii K, Yamanaka M, Yasuda K. Acute effects of dynamic stretching exercise on power output during concentric dynamic constant external resistance leg extension. J Strength Cond Res 21: 1238, 2007.
42. Young WB, Behm DG. Effects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 43: 21–27, 2003.
43. Young W, Elliot S. Acute effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and maximum voluntary contractions on explosive force production and jumping performance. Res Q Exerc Sport 72: 273–279, 2001.

ballistic stretching; proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching; static stretching; vertical jump

Copyright © 2014 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.