Although the focus of this study precludes the identification of specific mechanisms underlying the exercise-induced changes observed, it is reasonable to infer that the reduced plasma glucose AUC was most likely because of 2 factors. The primary sources of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during RE are derived from high-energy phosphagen breakdown, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis of intramyocellular lipids. Depletion of intramuscular energy substrates has a beneficial effect on glucose uptake. The greater improvements observed after RE3 suggest greater substrate use. Secondly, the increase in glucose uptake most likely resulted from a protracted postexercise increase in IS that may persist for approximately 48 hours after exercise (21).
In summary, this is the first study to examine the effects of a single bout of low-volume, moderate-intensity RE on OGTT plasma insulin, glucose, and C-peptide responses relative to a higher volume RE protocol of like intensity. Both glucose tolerance and IS were significantly improved only after the high-volume, moderate-intensity RE protocol. Although the data from this study confirm previous research findings that higher doses of RE tend to yield greater improvements in glucoregulatory control, this principle may be counterproductive in certain populations who are untrained, obese, and have a low exercise tolerance. Furthermore, the trends observed in plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide concentrations after low-volume, moderate-intensity RE reflect that low-volume RE performed at 65% 1RM may be of benefit to these same populations.
Special thanks go to Dr. Charlotte Sanborn for her assistance in the DXA data collection. Also special thanks go to Sheryl Milford for her assistance in the dietary analysis.
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