A significant main effect for 10-m sprint times was found highlighting a better performance after the DS and DSR protocol compared with the SS protocol at 0, 3, and 6 minutes: F (2,38) = 13.7, 18, and 21.1, respectively, and p < 0.05 (Figure 2). Also, a significant main effect for 20-m sprint times was found highlighting a better performance after the DS and DSR protocol compared with the SS protocol at 0, 3, and 6 minutes: F (2,38) = 11.3, 14.6, and 11.4, respectively, and p < 0.05 (Figure 3). There was no significant effect of time for 10- and 20-m sprint times after the SS, DS, and DSR protocols (Figures 2 and 3).
One of the possible mechanisms behind the enhanced jumping and sprinting performance after a dynamic-style warm-up is PAP. Indeed, it has been shown that activation of a muscle may cause an enhanced performance for some time after the cessation of the activation (30). PAP may be a result of increased phosphorylation of myosin light chains, increasing the calcium sensitivity of the myofilaments (30). Also, an increase in muscle temperature and muscle blood flow as a result of dynamic stretching may induce a more forceful and quicker muscle contraction by increasing the speed of nerve impulses (31) and the force-generating capacity of muscle cells (35). Because PAP also occurs after static exercise (16), one may argue that it does not explain the superior performance after dynamic in comparison to static stretching. However, fast motor units exhibit more PAP than slow motor units (16), and because more motor units are recruited during dynamic than static contractions (34) and hence also more fast motor units, the PAP may be larger after a dynamic than a static warm-up. Furthermore, the additional recruitment of fast motor units when resistance exercise is added to a warm-up (13,38) may augment PAP and further enhance performance.
Although specificity of exercise selection is important, the varying degree between jump and sprint performance for the dynamic plus resistance warm-up in the current study may be more related to PAP. PAP may only be present during the first few muscle contractions and fades during ongoing activity. Therefore, jump performance may benefit more because just 1 maximal contraction of the muscle is required compared to sprint performance, which requires a series of muscle contractions. In our observations this suggestion may be supported with the lower jump performance after dynamic stretching in comparison with dynamic stretching with the inclusion of resistance, while there was no difference in sprint performance between these 2 warm-up protocols. Furthermore, biomechanical requirements and muscle fiber recruitment patterns differ for acceleration and maximal sprinting (32,42), thus sprinting may require a greater coordinated effort of agonists and antagonist muscle groups compared to an in-place vertical jump.
Another unique aspect of the present study was to investigate the interaction between PAP and fatigue. Jump performance was superior at 3 and 6 minutes after than immediately following the dynamic plus resistance warm-up. Previously, it was found that jumping performance was not enhanced 2 minutes after a dynamic stretch protocol while wearing a weighted vest of 6% body weight (13). The authors suggest that fatigue may still be present and that the standard 2-minute recovery as used in previous studies (12,13,21,38) prior to performance may not be sufficient, so recovery time may need to be longer. This may be so and would fit our observations, but the load may just have been so high that it induced fatigue because wearing a vest of 2% body weight did enhance performance 2 minutes after the warm-up (13). Achieving optimal PAP is a catch-22; we want high-intensity exercise, to recruit the fast motor units that exhibit the largest PAP, yet such exercise may induce a larger degree of fatigue. In addition, PAP declines during prolonged recovery (30). Chiu et al. (7), however, found that fatigue was present within the first 5 minutes following an acute heavy-resistance exercise stimulus, whereas PAP remained for more than 18 minutes. This was also evident in the current study because the inclusion of resistance in a dynamic warm-up enhanced jump performance compared to only a dynamic warm-up, but a 3-minute recovery was required before jump ability was superior, which was still evident at 6 minutes. To provide a more detailed description for optimal recovery, it may be appropriate to analyze 1 performance measure at a time. Also, the activation of the PAP mechanism can occur following any high-intensity exercise (30), and 1 performance test may have a subsequent effect on another different test.
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