Where h = jump height (cm); g = gravitational acceleration (9.80665m.s−2); tf = flight time (second); P = mechanical power of one jump (W.kg−1); tc = contact time of 1 jump (second); and tt= total time of 1 jump (second).
The sprinters flexed the knees until they felt a comfortable starting position; semi-squatting position occurred normally at a knee angle of about 85 degrees when performing SJ (7). The subjects maintained their posture at least 2 to 3 seconds, which prevented the prestretching of muscles from any preliminary downward movement before jumping. The sprinters performed 2 maximum vertical jumps from the starting position and landed on switching mat with the legs kept straight with a 1-minute rest period. FT was recorded to calculate SJ height, which was used for the statistical analysis.
CMJ, where the muscles were prestretched before shortening in the desired direction, made use of the stretch-shorten cycle. The sprinters performed maximum vertical jump with hands kept on the hips, started from an upright standing position following a preliminary downward movement by flexing the knee approximately to the same knee angle as the starting position in SJ during CMJ. FT was recorded to calculate the CMJ height of 2 attempts, which were used for the statistical analysis.
In DJ, sprinters were instructed to step to space from the DJ stair and perform a maximum effort vertical jump immediately after landing on the switching mat. It was instructed that the sprinters landed on the mat after the vertical jump. The position of the center of mass was almost the same with takeoff and landing; the sprinters were asked to keep their hands on their hips throughout the whole movement. Subjects performed 7 drop jumps from the DJ stair (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm) in a random order and instructed to perform 1 trial in each drop height with a rest period of 5 minutes, which allowed time to recover. CT and FT in each DJ were recorded to calculate the maximum jump height and jump power. Drop height resulted in maximum jump height, which was used as a drop jump height (DJH) for the statistical analysis. If the value for the maximum jump height was the same for any DJH, the jump having the highest power was used.
The sprinters performed continuous rhythmic vertical jumps with hands kept on the hips during RJ on switching mat. The subjects were encouraged to jump with a maximum frequency and height. CT and FT of each jump were recorded to calculate RJ height and mechanical power. RJH, rebound jump mean power (RJP), and rebound jump peak power (Ppeak) were used for the statistical analysis.
Horizontal jump procedures including SLJ, STJ, SQJ, and STENJ were performed in 1 session in a random order. Subjects performed 2 trials in each horizontal jump with a 5-minute rest period. As an actual jump distance, the distance between feet points at the start and back trace of sprinters in the long jump area was measured with the meter (Stabila, Germany). The better horizontal distance of 2 trials in each type of jumps was recorded for the statistical analysis.
An SLJ test, a forward jump, was started with feet together and from the side of the long jump area and completed with both feet landing into the long jump area. An STJ test, which consisted of 3 dynamic horizontal bounds, was used to assess the rebound stretch-shortening cycle muscular contractions. Each subject started with feet together and completed 3 consecutive bounds using alternate feet. The third contact was completed with feet together landing in a long jump area. SQJ and STENJ were performed with 5 and 10 consecutive bounds, as with STJ.
Statistical analysis was carried out on SPSS for Windows (Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to establish the relationships between sprint parameters and both vertical and horizontal jump parameters. Statistical significance was determined using a probability level of p ≤ 0.05.
Mean and standard deviations of sprint and jump parameters were presented in Table 2. Tables 3 and 4 showed the correlation coefficients among the sprint parameters in the Vmax part of the 100-m sprint and the jump parameters.
There were significant relationships between Vmax and the vertical jump parameters (p < 0.05). CT was significantly correlated with RJP and Ppeak (p < 0.05). FT was significantly correlated with DJH (p < 0.05). SL was significantly correlated with SJ, CMJ, RJH, RJP, and Ppeak (p < 0.05), whereas there were no relationships between SF and the vertical jump parameters.
Horizontal jumps were significantly correlated with only FT and SF. Although there were significant relationships between FT and all horizontal jumps (p < 0.05), SF was significantly related with only STJ, SQJ, and STENJ (p < 0.05). No relationships were found among the horizontal jumps, 100-m sprint, Vmax, CT, and SL.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between both vertical and horizontal jump performances and sprint parameters such as Vmax, contact time, flight time, stride frequency, and stride length in the distance reaching Vmax phase during sprint running.
Some studies indicate relationship between sprint time and double- or single-leg vertical jumps (4,11,20,25,27,30,31,37,40). Double-leg vertical jumps reflect similar force-time characteristics to single- or dominant-leg concentric movement, which is elicited by training (39). SJ, CMJ, DJ, and RJ with double leg have been the most widely used vertical jump tests in most scientific studies (3,4,6,24,25,31,37,40). SJ that contains only concentric muscle activity is closely related to dynamic and explosive strength and it is also regarded as a general indicator of reactive strength (3,4). CMJ is used to measure the improvement of this reactive strength under the stretch-shortening cycle (3). It is indicated that CMJ elicits more power output in the concentric phase as a result of potential energy stored for the period of eccentric stretching of the leg muscles (6). Moreover, it also has been stated that the amount of strength elicited or energy stored in the concentric phase of the CMJ is greater than the concentric phase of SJ (3,6). Similarly, DJ and RJ movements contain the stretch-shortening cycle and elicit high power output in a short time (37). It is assumed that the foot contact during sprint running shows more physiomechanical similarities to CMJ, DJ, and RJ. Stored extra elastic energy in the series elastic components of the muscle within the stretch-shortening processes helps to increase running velocity and Vmax in the concentric phase (23). Therefore, movements demonstrated in sprint running are also similar to SJ, CMJ, DJ, and RJ movements and require a high level of muscular power. Studies show significant relationships between sprint parameters and both SJ and CMJ (4,11,25,27,30). Furthermore, Young et al. (40) stated that CMJ is related to Vmax because it contains the stretch-shortening cycle in its movement pattern. Berthoin et al. (4) has stated that Vmax was significantly correlated with SJ (r = 0.63) and CMJ (r = 0.56). Similarly, the other studies (25,27,30) have reported significant relationships between Vmax and both SJ (r = 0.62) and CMJ (r = 0.48 to 0.65). Faccioni (18) reported the highest significant correlation between Vmax and CMJ (r = 0.72) in elite-subelite sprinters. The present study demonstrated similar relationships between Vmax and both SJ (r = 0.56) and CMJ (r = 0.55) as given in these studies. Some studies have been concluded that jumping tests including stretch-shortening cycle such as CMJ and DJ are the best anaerobic predictors of Vmax (4,5). However, other studies denoted that DJ and RJ are better predictors of Vmax compared to CMJ (37,40). In the earlier study, Mero et al. (30) reported that Vmax was significantly correlated with DJH (r = 0.72). More recently, Katja and Coh (25) found that there was a significant and positive relationship between Vmax and DJH (r = 0.59). In addition, Miguel and Reis (31) have demonstrated that RJ performance had correlations with sprint time (r = −0.753). RJ contains good exhibit eccentric and concentric muscle activity as possible short contact time for power output as the drop jump (37). However, the highest relationship was found between Vmax and DJH in the present study, as reported in the study of Mero et al. (30). Young et al. (40) indicated that better sprinters showed higher contraction forces in a shorter time during the eccentric phase of foot contact. Relatively smaller knee angle in the stretch-shortening cycle type of movements during drop jump brings out shorter contact times like contact times demonstrated during sprint running (40). It, therefore, can be reasoned that Vmax was better indicated by DJH than the other vertical jump performances. Consequently, it could be concluded that drop jump test may be a more specific test to estimate the Vmax during sprint running.
In the present study, CT was significantly correlated with both RJP and Ppeak, whereas FT was not significantly related to the vertical jump performances except with DJH. However, SL correlated with the jump parameters except with DJH. However, no significant relationship was found between SF and the vertical jump performances. Mero et al. (30) demonstrated a significant relationship between SF and CMJ (r = 0.48). Furthermore, Kale et al. (24) found significant correlations between DJH and CT of 30 to 40 m (r = −0.505, p < 0.05) and DJH and CT of 50 to 60 m (r = −0.562, p < 0.05). When the literature was investigated, it showed that more powerful sprinters have shorter foot CT with the ground, more stride frequency (17), and longer SL and FT (18). SL and SF are influenced by body height (36) and leg length, but athletes who have higher Vmax for a given body height demonstrate higher SF. However, athletes who have shorter body height show lower SL and perform higher SF (22). In the Vmax phase of sprint running, each sprint stride including higher SL and SF occurs as a result of decreasing CT and increasing FT. Decreasing of CT and increasing of FT are affected by more standing posture position and shorter horizontal distance between feet (17). The use of the stretch-shortening cycle also augments the concentric phase of leg movement that results in an increase in power (7). The stretch-shortening cycle in both sprinting and vertical jump movements shows similarities to concentric or slow and fast stretch-shortening cycle behavior of different types of muscle function (28).
Horizontal jumps show physiomechanical similarities to vertical jumps and are used for monitoring the high class sprinter's performance capacity. Dick (16) has given the normative values of horizontal jumps for different levels of sprinters. SLJ, one of the horizontal jumps, provides horizontal direction effort with explosive strength. Muscle mass, tension, the differences of hip and knee joint angles, and segment positions may influence SLJ. Davies et al. (15) have reported that the greater leg muscle mass, the greater distance jumped in SLJ. However, STJ, SQJ, and STENJ combine repetitive forward movement responses and explosive strength is repeated in these jumps. It is thought that horizontal jumps provide significant impulses for shorter amortization recovery phases of the strides. Consecutive horizontal jumps with short amortization phases and maximum efforts are believed to provide repetitive responses. Horita et al. (21) stated that improved horizontal jumping ability increases the range of motion of the lower limbs for the period of the flight phase of the sprint stride. Therefore, there is an increase in horizontal distance jumped in jumping tests. Eccentric contractions including high velocity stimulate the muscle spindles, which produce reflexive movements close to DJ during the horizontal jumps. This type of instantaneous contractions in the muscle increases the muscle activity and the force developed as a result of muscle contraction (7). Serial elastic components of the musculotendinous unit are stretched in the eccentric phase of the horizontal jumps and more elastic or potential energy is stored. Immediately following the eccentric phase, this stored energy is released at that moment of concentric contraction of the muscles (9). Muscle activity of the leg shows a similar stretch-shortening cycle activity from the beginning to the end of CT during horizontal jumps and sprinting. Apparently, increased applied force is shortened for the duration of the support phase despite the shortened CT in increased running velocity and Vmax (38). Foot impact is coupled with force and power of the leg by way of contacting the ground and leads to the shortening of CT (1). There is short CT to maintain maximum ratio for horizontal velocity of center of mass in sprinting among repeated FTs (26). However, the amount of vertical strength developed at horizontal jumps is greater than developed in maximum sprinting because of long contact time with the ground (29). Nagona et al. (33) explained that flexor muscles of the leg were recruited to generate greater joint flexion motions during the countermovement phase in the horizontal jumping and this action had a more effective moving of the body's center of mass in the forward direction than sprinting. Therefore, this finding can support longer CT of horizontal jumps than sprinting. As a result of long CT, the horizontal jumps did not show any correlation with CT in the Vmax part of sprint running in the present study. The present study showed that Vmax, sprint time, and SL were also not correlated with the horizontal jumps, whereas FT and SF were significantly correlated with STJ, SQJ, and STENJ. Similarly, Hennessy and Kilty (20) have also observed no significant correlation between 100-m running time and SQJ. Although some studies supported the correlation between horizontal jumps such as SLJ, STJ, SQJ, and STENJ and sprint running time (2,18,19,35), there are no studies within our knowledge examining the correlation between sprint parameters during the distance reaching Vmax in sprint running and the horizontal jumps.
In conclusion, the highest relationship between Vmax and DJH suggests that DJH has been demonstrated to be a more effective way to reflect Vmax in sprint running than other vertical jump tests. The results of this study indicated that the vertical and horizontal jump tests could be used for evaluating the sprint parameters at the distance reaching Vmax in sprint running at the beginning of the preparation training phase. Future research also should involve the continual monitoring of the jumping and sprinting performance in different training phases of the sprinters to determine how changes in these parameters would relate to changes in Vmax phase.
Vmax in 100-m sprint running and vertical jump relationships revealed that coaches should consider the drop jump height resulted in the maximum vertical jump height as an indicator of Vmax. Vertical jumps, especially drop jump, should also be considered as a useful training exercise to improve Vmax, which may lead to an improvement in a sprinter's performance. However, horizontal jumps may not be good indicators of sprint parameters at the distance reaching Vmax because horizontal jumps were just correlated with stride frequency negatively and flight time positively. Furthermore, athletes and coaches should know that the flexor muscles were activated to a higher level in the forward direction of horizontal jump and thus the hip joint was used more vigorously than in sprint running. Such forward cyclic horizontal jumps would develop effective specific strength in extensor muscles of the legs for the drive phase of the sprint stride. Therefore, horizontal jump exercises should be incorporated into a training to improve sprint performance.
The present paper was supported by Anadolu University Scientific Research Projects by Project 031306. Special thanks are given to Hacettepe University School of Sport Sciences and Technology students Mithat Süpürgeci, Mesude Çiftçi, and Nesrin Yildirim for their assistance in the preparation of measurement settings.
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Keywords:© 2009 National Strength and Conditioning Association
maximum velocity; contact time; flight time; stride length; stride frequency