Travis, SK, Mujika, I, Zwetsloot, KA, Gentles, JA, Stone, MH, and Bazyler, CD. The effects of 3 vs. 5 days of training cessation on maximal strength. J Strength Cond Res 36(3): 633–640, 2022—The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 vs. 5 days of training cessation on body composition, perceived recovery and stress state, and maximal strength. Nineteen strength-trained athletes (23.8 ± 4.1 year; 90.8 ± 20.7 kg; 174.2 ± 7.3 cm) completed a powerlifting specific 4-week training block followed by either 3 or 5 days of training cessation. During the 4-week training block, athletes were trained 3 days per week, performing 3–4 movements that included at least 2–3 competition lifts per session while performing 4–5 sets of 3–5 repetitions with intensity ranging from 75 to 100% 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Body composition, psychometric measures, upper-body maximal strength, and lower-body maximal strength were assessed before (T1) and after 4 weeks of training (T2) and at 3 or 5 days of training cessation (T3). The alpha level was set at p < 0.05. After the 4-week training block (T1 to T2), trivial significant increases in body mass (p = 0.016, Hedge's g = 0.04) and bench press 1RM (p = 0.01, g = 0.16) were observed, as well as small significant increases in back squat 1RM (p < 0.001, g = 0.23), deadlift 1RM (p = 0.003, g = 0.20), powerlifting total (p < 0.001, g = 0.21), and Wilks Score (p < 0.001, g = 0.27). There were no significant differences between groups for isometric back squat performance, psychometric measures, and body composition after training cessation (T2–T3). However, small significant decreases in isometric bench press performance were observed after 5 days (p < 0.001, g = 0.16), but not 3 days of training cessation. The results of this study suggest maximal lower-body strength can be preserved during 3 and 5 days of training cessation, but maximal upper-body strength is only preserved for 3 days after 4 weeks of strength training in athletes.