Lytle, JR, Stanelle, ST, Kravits, DM, Ellsworth, RL, Martin, SE, Green, JS, and Crouse, SF. Effects of an acute strength and conditioning training session on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 901–904, 2020—The purpose of this study was to determine whether an athletic strength and conditioning (S&C) session will alter body composition estimates of a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Twenty-two strength-trained individuals (15 men, 7 women, 24 ± 2 years, 174.2 ± 8.5 cm, 83.5 ± 15.0 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Each subject underwent 2 DXA scans, before and after completion of the S&C session, which consisted of upper- and lower-body resistance exercises and interval running. Subjects consumed a free-living meal before the first scan, after which only ad libitum water intake was consumed until completing the second scan. Results were analyzed through sex by time repeated-measures analysis of variance. If no interaction effect was observed, results were next analyzed through correlated t-test (α = 0.05). Significant sex by time interactions were observed for arm total and lean mass, as well as a significant main effect of time showing a decrease in arm lean mass after the S&C session. Values before and after the S&C session that resulted in significant differences via correlated t-test are displayed in Table 1. Results revealed a significant decrease in total mass, arm and leg percent fat, and trunk lean mass, and an increase in leg lean mass.