Prestes, J, Tibana, RA, de Araujo Sousa, E, da Cunha Nascimento, D, de Oliveira Rocha, P, Camarço, NF, Frade de Sousa, NM, and Willardson, JM. Strength and muscular adaptations after 6 weeks of rest-pause vs. traditional multiple-sets resistance training in trained subjects. J Strength Cond Res 33(7S): S113–S121, 2019—The purpose of this study was to compare the longitudinal effects of 6 weeks of rest-pause vs. traditional multiple-set resistance training (RT) on muscle strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, and body composition in trained subjects. Eighteen trained subjects (mean ± SD; age = 30.2 ± 6.6 years; weight = 74.8 ± 17.2 kg; height = 171.4 ± 10.3 cm) were randomly assigned to either a traditional multiple-set group (n = 9; 7 men and 2 women; 3 sets of 6 repetitions with 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and 2-minute rest intervals between sets) or a rest-pause group (n = 9; 7 men and 2 women). The results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between groups in 1RM strength (rest-pause: 16 ± 11% for bench press, 25 ± 17% for leg press and 16 ± 10% for biceps curl vs. traditional multiple-set: 10 ± 21% for BP, 30 ± 20% for LP and 21 ± 20% for BC). In localized muscular endurance, the rest-pause group displayed significantly greater (p < 0.05) repetitions, only for the LP exercise (rest pause: 27 ± 8% vs. traditional multiple-set: 8 ± 2%). In muscle hypertrophy, the rest-pause group displayed significantly greater (p < 0.05) thickness, only for the thigh (rest-pause: 11 ± 14% vs. traditional multiple-set: 1 ± 7%). In conclusion, RT performed with the rest-pause method resulted in similar gains in muscle strength as traditional multiple-set training. However, the rest-pause method resulted in greater gains in localized muscular endurance and hypertrophy for the thigh musculature.