Guilherme, JPLF, Egorova, ES, Semenova, EA, Kostryukova, ES, Kulemin, NA, Borisov, OV, Khabibova, SA, Larin, AK, Ospanova, EA, Pavlenko, AV, Lyubaeva, EV, Popov, DV, Lysenko, EA, Vepkhvadze, TF, Lednev, EM, Govorun, VM, Generozov, EV, Ahmetov, II, and Lancha Junior, AH. The A-allele of the FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism is associated with decreased proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers and over-represented in heavier athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(3): 691–700, 2019—The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of the FTO T > A (rs9939609) polymorphism in elite athletes from 2 cohorts (Brazil and Russia), as well as to find a relationship between FTO genotypes and muscle fiber composition. A total of 677 athletes and 652 nonathletes were evaluated in the Brazilian cohort, whereas a total of 920 athletes and 754 nonathletes were evaluated in the Russian cohort. It was found a trend for a lower frequency of A/A genotype in long-distance athletes compared with nonathletes (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65; p = 0.054). By contrast, it was found an increased frequency of the A-allele in Russian power athletes. The presence of the T/A + A/A genotypes rather than T/T increased the OR of being a Russian power athlete compared with matched nonathletes (OR: 1.45; p = 0.002). Different from that observed in combat sports athletes of lighter weight categories, the A-allele was also over-represented in combat sports athletes of heavier weight categories. The presence of the T/A + A/A genotypes rather than T/T increased the OR of being a combat sports athlete of heavier weight categories compared with nonathletes (OR: 1.79; p = 0.018). Regarding the muscle fibers, we found that carriers of the A/A genotype had less slow-twitch muscle fibers than T-allele carriers (p = 0.029). In conclusion, the A/A genotype of the FTO T > A polymorphism is under-represented in athletes more reliant on a lean phenotype and associated with decreased proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibers, while is over-represented in strength and heavier athletes.