Raymond-Pope, CJ, Dengel, DR, Fitzgerald, JS, and Bosch, TA. Association of compartmental leg lean mass measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry with force production. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018—We recently reported a novel method for measuring upper leg anterior/posterior compartmental composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of this method with measures of muscle-specific and explosive strength and to compare this method with traditional dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of total and upper leg masses. We hypothesize this method will be related to muscle-specific strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry and explosive strength measured by jump mechanography. Nineteen NCAA Division I college athletes (10 women; age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m; body mass = 73.8 ± 17.0 kg) underwent 3 DXA scans (1 total body, 2 lateral) and knee extension/flexion strength assessment using isokinetic dynamometry at 3 velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s−1). A subset of 10 participants also completed a squat jump on a force platform on a different day. Pearson correlations compared 3 separate lean soft-tissue mass (LSTM) regions of interest (total leg, upper leg, and compartmental leg) with (a) isokinetic peak torque and (b) squat jump height, peak force, and peak and average rate of force development. Compartmental leg LSTM demonstrated similar correlations (r = 0.437–0.835) with peak torque in comparison with total leg (r = 0.463–0.803) and upper leg (r = 0.449–0.795) LSTM. Summed right and left total leg (r = 0.830–0.940), total upper leg (r = 0.824–0.953), and anterior (r = 0.582–0.798) and posterior (r = 0.750–0.951) compartmental leg LSTM demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with all squat jump variables, particularly jump height (p < 0.05). The lateral segmentation DXA scanning method demonstrated feasibility in assessing compartmental leg LSTM in relation with isokinetic and squat jump measurements—important outcomes when examining an athlete's response to training and rehabilitation.