Bennett, H, Fuller, J, Milanese, S, Jones, S, Moore, E, and Chalmers, S. The relationship between movement quality and physical performance in elite adolescent Australian football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2020—The assessment of movement quality is commonplace in competitive sport to profile injury risk and guide exercise prescription. However, the relationship between movement quality scores and physical performance measures is unclear. Moreover, whether improvements in these measures are associated remain unknown. Over a 4-year period, 918 individual elite adolescent Australian Rules Footballers completed the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and physical performance testing (5- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, planned agility, and 20-m shuttle run test), allowing the analysis of relationships between FMS parameters and performance measures. In addition, 235 athletes completed testing over 2 consecutive years, allowing the analysis of relationships between changes in these outcomes. Small associations were observed between FMS composite score, hurdle step performance, in-line lunge performance, trunk stability push-up performance, rotary stability, and measures of speed, power, agility, and aerobic fitness (ρ = 0.071–0.238). Across consecutive seasons, significant improvements were observed in the deep squat subtest (d = 0.21), FMS composite score (d = 0.17), and 5- (d = 0.16) and 20-m sprint times (d = 0.39). A negative association between change in rotary stability and change in jump height (ρ = −0.236) from one season to the next was detected. Results suggest FMS scores have limited relationships with measures of performance in footballers. To optimize athletic performance, once acceptable movement capabilities have been established, training should not prioritize improving movement quality over improvements in strength, power, and change of direction ability.