Baena-Raya, A, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Romea, ES, Soriano-Maldonado, A, and Rodríguez-Pérez, MA. Gender-specific association of the sprint mechanical properties with change of direction performance in basketball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2020—We evaluated the gender-specific associations between the mechanical variables derived from the horizontal force-velocity (FV) profile (i.e., theoretical maximal force [F0], velocity [V0], maximal power output [Pmax], peak ratio of the effective horizontal component [RFpeak], and the force application technique index [DRF]) and the change of direction (COD) performance for basketball players. Seventy-one players (23 women and 48 men) were assessed for the horizontal FV profile and COD using the modified 505 and V-cut tests. The FV profile parameters were significantly higher for the men than those for the women. The F0, RFpeak, and Pmax were strongly associated with performance in the 505 test (women rrange = −0.72 to −0.82; men: rrange = −0.67 to −0.75; p < 0.001) and the V-cut test (women rrange = −0.68 to −0.76; men rrange = −0.45 to −0.50; p < 0.001), as well as with a lower COD deficit (women rrange = 0.58 to 0.75 (p < 0.01); men rrange = 0.49 to 0.54; all p < 0.001). For the women, a 1 N·kg−1 increase of the F0 was associated with −0.20 seconds and −0.56 seconds in the 505 and V-cut tests, respectively, and 0.16 seconds for the COD deficit. In the men, it was associated with −0.13 seconds and −0.37 seconds in the 505 and V-cut tests, respectively, and 0.10 seconds for the COD deficit. F0, RFpeak, and Pmax are the most determinant sprint mechanical properties to successfully COD and reduce the COD deficit. The horizontal FV profile assessment is recommended for diagnosing and prescribing a training program for basketball players.