Siebert, T, Donath, L, Borsdorf, M, and Stutzig, N. Effect of static stretching, dynamic stretching, and myofascial foam rolling on range of motion during hip flexion: A randomized crossover trial. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2020—Static and dynamic stretching (DS) are commonly used in sports and physical therapy to increase the range of motion (ROM). However, prolonged static stretching (SS) can deteriorate athletic performance. Alternative methods to increase ROM are thus needed. Foam rolling (FR) may initiate muscle relaxation, improve muscular function, physical performance, and ROM. Previous studies that examined effects of FR on ROM did not control for increased tissue compliance or shifted pain threshold. In this study, the isolated influence of altered tissue compliance on ROM after FR, SS, and DS was investigated using a randomized crossover design. Hip flexion ROM at given joint torques before and after SS, DS, and FR was randomly assessed in 14 young male adults (age: 23.7 ± 1.3 years; height: 182 ± 8 cm; body mass: 79.4 ± 6.9 kg). Hip flexion ROM was measured in the sagittal plane with the subjects lying in a lateral position (no gravitational effects on ROM measurements). Surface electromyographic (EMG) analysis of 2 representative hip extensors (M. biceps femoris and M. semitendinosus) was applied to control for active muscle contribution during ROM measurements. Significant increases in ROM for SS (3.8 ± 1.1°; p < 0.001) and DS (3.7 ± 1.8°; p < 0.001) were observed, but not for FR (0.8 ± 3.1°; p = 0.954). Because stretch forces on tendon and muscle tissue during SS and DS predominately act in longitudinal direction, FR induces mainly transversal forces in the muscle tissue. Thus, increased ROM after FR reported in the literature is more likely due to a shift in the pain threshold. These results provide a better understanding of differential loading conditions during SS, DS, and FR for coaches and practitioners.