Harty, PS, Friedl, KE, Nindl, BC, Harry, JR, Vellers, HL, and Tinsley, GM. Military body composition standards and physical performance: historical perspectives and future directions. J Strength Cond Res 36(12): 3551–3561, 2022—US military physique and body composition standards have been formally used for more than 100 years. These metrics promote appropriate physical fitness, trim appearance, and long-term health habits in soldiers, although many specific aspects of these standards have evolved as evidence-based changes have emerged. Body composition variables have been shown to be related to many physical performance outcomes including aerobic capacity, muscular endurance, strength and power production, and specialized occupational tasks involving heavy lifting and load carriage. Although all these attributes are relevant, individuals seeking to improve military performance should consider emphasizing strength, hypertrophy, and power production as primary training goals, as these traits appear vital to success in the new Army Combat Fitness Test introduced in 2020. This fundamental change in physical training may require an adjustment in body composition standards and methods of measurement as physique changes in modern male and female soldiers. Current research in the field of digital anthropometry (i.e., 3-D body scanning) has the potential to dramatically improve performance prediction algorithms and potentially could be used to inform training interventions. Similarly, height-adjusted body composition metrics such as fat-free mass index might serve to identify normal weight personnel with inadequate muscle mass, allowing for effective targeted nutritional and training interventions. This review provides an overview of the origin and evolution of current US military body composition standards in relation to military physical readiness, summarizes current evidence relating body composition parameters to aspects of physical performance, and discusses issues relevant to the emerging modern male and female warrior.