Martins-Costa, HC, Lacerda, LT, Diniz, RCR, Lima, FV, Andrade, AGP, Peixoto, GH, Gomes, MC, Lanza, MB, Bemben, MG, and Chagas, MH. Equalization of training protocols by time under tension determines the magnitude of changes in strength and muscular hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 36(7): 1770–1780, 2022—The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 training protocols equalized by tension (TUT) on maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [RM]), regional cross-sectional areas (proximal, middle, and distal), and total cross-sectional areas (sum of the regional cross-sectional areas) of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles. Thirty-eight men untrained in resistance training participated in the study and were allocated under 3 conditions: Protocol 3s (n = 11; 12 repetitions; 3s repetition duration), Protocol 6s (n = 11; 6 repetitions; 6s repetition duration), and Control (n = 11; no training). Training protocols (10 weeks; bench press exercise) were equated for TUT (36 seconds per set), number of sets (3–4), intensity (50–55% of 1RM), and rest between sets (3 minutes). Analysis of variance was used to examine a percentage change in variables of interest across the 3 groups with an alpha level of 0.05 used to establish statistical significance. Protocols 3s and 6s showed no differences in the increase of total and regional muscle cross-sectional areas. There were no differences in regional hypertrophy of the pectoralis major muscle. In the triceps brachii muscle, the increase in distal cross-sectional area was greater when compared with the middle and proximal regions. Both experimental groups had similar increases in the 1RM test. In conclusion, training protocols with the same TUT promote similar strength gains and muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, considering that the protocols used different numbers of repetitions, the results indicate that training volumes cannot be considered separately from TUT when evaluating neuromuscular adaptations.