Iguchi J, Kuzuhara, K, Katai, K, Hojo, T, Fujisawa, Y, Kimura, M, Yanagida, Y, and Yamada, Y. Seasonal changes in anthropometric, physiological, nutritional, and performance factors in collegiate rowers. J Strength Cond Res 34(11): 3225–3231, 2020—Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity seems to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012–2013 season. In this study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012–2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March–April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May–August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2,000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body mass and body fat), and energy intake/expenditure in each phase. There were significant main effects of the training time by the intensities; 2,000-m rowing ergometer time; energy expenditure; and protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake across the seasons (p < 0.05). Two findings were particularly important. First, on-water high-intensity training, especially for inexperienced rowers, may contribute to improvement of 2,000-m rowing ergometer performance. Second, higher intake of carbohydrate, and to a lesser degree, protein, is necessary for optimal training adaptation (e.g., increase of muscle glycogen content), and results in better 2,000-m performance on the rowing ergometer. Also, those findings may be beneficial to the coaches who are interested in designing the well-controlled seasonal training program, which is especially intended to improve the 2,000-m rowing ergometer performance as well as avoidance of overtraining.