Krajewski, KT, Bansbach, HM, McLean, L, McKenzie, C, Rawcliffe, A, Graham, SM, Flanagan, SD, Pourmoghaddam, A, Dettmer, M, and Connaboy, C. Effects of short-term unilateral strength training on measures of postural control when wearing “operationally relevant” backpack loads. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2743–2750, 2020—To examine the effects of “operationally relevant” loads on postural stability and to determine the effects of unilateral and bilateral strength training programs on postural stability in healthy, recruit-aged men. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (UL; n = 7) or bilateral (BL; n = 8) strength training group, which performed strength training 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects completed the following pretest and post-test assessments: 1 repetition maximum in bilateral (1RM-BL) and unilateral (1RM-UL) stance positions and bilateral and unilateral balance tasks with eyes open and eyes closed. Balance tasks were performed over 3 loading conditions: body mass (BM), 50% BM, and 70% BM. Sample entropy (SE) and root mean square (RMS) were calculated from the center of pressures collected during each balance assessment. The UL strength training group showed significant improvement after training in both 1RM-UL (p < 0.01) and 1RM-BL (p < 0.01). The BL strength training group only showed significant improvement in 1RM-BL (p = 0.01). There was a significant main effect of load on RMS (p < 0.05) across all balance tasks with RMS increasing with increasing load. Sample entropy was found to decrease with increasing load in the unilateral eyes open and bilateral stance tasks. Significant increases in strength (∼10 to –29%) were observed; however, increased strength alone is not enough to mitigate the effects of load carriage on the postural control, even when training is performed in stance positions that are posturally challenging. Therefore, “operationally relevant” loads negatively impact postural stability in novice load carriers when assessing nonlinear measures.