Fyock-Martin, MB, Erickson, EK, Hautz, AH, Sell, KM, Turnbaugh, BL, Caswell, SV, and Martin, JR. What do firefighting ability tests tell us about firefighter physical fitness? A systematic review of the current evidence. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 2093–2103, 2020—The firefighting profession is a physiologically demanding occupation. Currently, sudden cardiac deaths account for 40–50% of firefighter job-related deaths, for which, inadequate aerobic fitness (AF) and obesity are established as risk factors. Departments have instituted firefighting physical ability tests (FPATs) as a method of quantifying readiness for occupational-related demands. A systematic review of the current literature examining the correlation between field fitness test performance and FPAT completion times was performed. The search identified 5 studies that met the eligibility criteria. The total number of subjects in the 5 studies was 265 (259 men and 6 women), including 200 professional firefighters (75.5%), 40 volunteer (15.1%), 20 officers (7.5%), and 5 recruits (1.9%). Upper-body strength (UBs) and upper-body endurance (UBe) had the strongest correlation to FPATs (r = −0.31 to −0.66; R2 = 0.10 to 0.44 and r = −0.27 to −0.61; R2 = 0.07 to 0.37; p < 0.05, respectively). Two studies suggested that AF has a weak-to-moderate relationship with FPATs (r = 0.38 and r = −0.62). Two studies showed that anaerobic capacity had weak-to-strong correlations with FPATs (r = −0.40 and r = 0.79; R2 = 0.16 to 0.62; p < 0.05). No studies found a statistically significant correlation between lower-body strength and FPAT performance. Further research is needed to better understand the role of field-based fitness test results on FPAT performance. An annual department-driven multicomponent fitness assessment measuring UBs, UBe, anaerobic capacity, and AF is recommended based on the evidence reviewed.