Gómez-Carmona, CD, Bastida-Castillo, A, Rojas-Valverde, D, de la Cruz Sánchez, E, García-Rubio, J, Ibáñez, SJ, and Pino-Ortega, J. Lower-limb dynamics of muscle oxygen saturation during the back-squat exercise: effects of training load and effort level. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1227–1236, 2020—The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of strength training on lower limb muscle oxygenation. The sample consisted of 12 male subjects (22.4 ± 1.73 years; 1.81 ± 0.08 cm height and 77.76 ± 8.77 kg body mass). Six different strength training stimuli were analyzed, based on the training variables: load (60–75% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and level of effort (LE) (E1: 4 × 8 [20RM], E2: 4 × 12 [20RM], E3: 4 × 16 [20RM], E4: 4 × 4 [10RM], E5: 4 × 6 [10RM], and E6: 4 × 8 [10RM]) in the squat exercise up to 90° with a 2-second stop between repetitions to avoid the myotatic reflex. Oxygen saturation at the beginning of the series (SmO2start), oxygen saturation at the end of the series (SmO2stop), percentage of oxygen saturation loss (▽%SmO2), and reoxygenation time (SmO2recT) were assessed using a near-infrared spectroscopy device. In addition, the percentage of mean propulsive velocity loss (%MPVL) was recorded using a linear transducer. The results suggested an influence of LE and training load on muscle oxygenation. A greater LE was directly associated with SmO2recT (r = 0.864), ▽%SmO2 (r = 0.873), and %MPVL (r = 0.883) and inversely with SmO2stop (r = −0.871). When the same LE was used (E1 vs. E4, E2 vs. E5, and E3 vs. E6), it was found that the stimuli with a higher load had a lower SmO2recT, ▽%SmO2, and %MPVL and a higher SmO2stop. Muscle oxygen saturation was found to be minimal (%SmO2 = 0) in stimuli with a LE greater than 60% (E3 and E6). The SmO2 variables studied in the present research could be considered as an easier and more useful method for understanding skeletal muscle fatigue during resistance training.