Costa, EC, Kent, DE, Boreskie, KF, Hay, JL, Kehler, DS, Edye-Mazowita, A, Nugent, K, Papadopoulos, J, Stammers, AN, Oldfield, C, Arora, RC, Browne, RAV, and Duhamel, TA. Acute effect of high-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on blood pressure and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1307–1316, 2020—Hypertension and arterial stiffness are common in middle-aged and older women. This study compared the acute effect of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. Nineteen women (67.6 ± 4.7 years) participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial. Subjects completed a control, MICE (30 minutes at 50–55% of heart rate reserve [HRR]), and HIIE (10 × 1 minute at 80–85% of HRR, 2 minutes at 40–45% of HRR) session in random order. Blood pressure and large and small arterial compliance (radial artery pulse wave analysis) were measured at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after sessions. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Systolic BP was reduced in ∼10 mm Hg after MICE at 30 minutes and after HIIE at all time points (30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) after exercise compared with the control session (p < 0.05). Only HIIE showed lower systolic BP levels at 60, 90, and 120 minutes after exercise compared with the control session (∼10 mm Hg; p < 0.05). No changes were observed in diastolic BP, or in large and small arterial compliance (p > 0.05). High-intensity interval exercise elicited a longer systolic postexercise hypotension than MICE compared with the control condition, despite the absence of acute modifications in large and small arterial compliance.