Ramis, TR, Muller, CHdL, Boeno, FP, Teixeira, BC, Rech, A, Pompermayer, MG, Medeiros, NdS, Oliveira, ÁRd, Pinto, RS, and Ribeiro, JL. Effects of traditional and vascular restricted strength training program with equalized volume on isometric and dynamic strength, muscle thickness, electromyographic activity, and endothelial function adaptations in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 34(3): 689–698, 2020—The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the acute and chronic effects of partial vascular occlusion training in young, physically active adults. Neuromuscular, morphological, and endothelial function responses were compared between high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT) and low-intensity resistance training with partial vascular occlusion (LI-BFR), despite the same training volume. The 28 subjects (age, 23.96 ± 2.67 years) were randomly assigned into 2 groups: LI-BFR (n = 15) and HI-RT (n = 13). Both groups performed unilateral exercise of elbow flexion (EF) and knee extension (KE) 3 times per week for 8 weeks. This study was approved by the ethics committee. Flow-mediated dilation showed a significant difference in baseline and post-training in the LI-BFR group (4.44 ± 0.51 vs. 6.35 ± 2.08 mm, respectively). For nitrite/nitrate concentrations only, there was a significant difference when comparing pre- and post-acute exercise in both groups. The torque and rep. Sixty percent 1 repetition maximum had improvements in both groups. There were differences between groups only in isometric delta EF and isokinetic delta KE (EF 3.42 ± 5.09 and 9.61 ± 7.52 N·m; KE 12.78 ± 25.61 and 42.69 ± 35.68 N·m; LI-BFR and HI-RT groups, respectively). There was a significant increase of muscle thickness in both groups. An increase of both isokinetic and isometric electromyography (EMG) of biceps of the HI-RT group was observed. The same was observed for the LI-BFR group regarding isokinetic and isometric EMG of vastus lateralis. Thus, in addition to strength and hypertrophy gains, this study also shows benefits related to vascular function. For practical applications, this study demonstrates a clinical importance of LI-BFR training as an alternative methodology.