Orange, ST, Marshall, P, Madden, LA, and Vince, RV. Short-term training and detraining effects of supervised vs. unsupervised resistance exercise in aging adults. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2733–2742, 2019—This study compared the effects of a 4-week supervised (SUP) resistance training program and unsupervised (UNSUP) resistance training program followed by 12 weeks of detraining (DET). Thirty-six healthy aging adults (age: 53.6 ± 3.6 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 5.1 kg·m−2) were randomly allocated to an SUP group (n = 17) or a UNSUP group (n = 19). Participants completed 3 training sessions per week using resistance bands and body weight movements. Measures of physical performance were administered at baseline, at the end of the training program, and after the DET period. Function was assessed with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), timed up-and-go (TUG), 30-second chair sit-to-stand (STS), stair-climb test (SCT), 40-m fast-paced walk test (FPWT) and sit-and-reach test (SRT), whereas the isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and hand grip test were used to measure muscle strength. After training, improvements in performance were found in the 6MWT, TUG, 30-second chair STS, SCT, FPWT, SRT, and IMTP (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant differences between groups (p > 0.05). In addition, most of the training-induced improvements remained significantly above baseline values after the DET period (p ≤ 0.05). No significant between-group differences were observed after training or DET (p > 0.05). Four weeks of either SUP or UNSUP resistance training is sufficient to substantially improve muscle strength and function in aging adults, and these gains are largely preserved after prescribed exercise cessation. Home-based resistance training seems to be a practical and effective alternative to traditional SUP programs that may help circumvent many barriers to physical activity in aging adults.